Several lumbar spine (lower back) disorders may cause sciatica. Sciatica is usually referred to as light to severe pain in the left or right leg. Occasionally doctors call a radiculopathy that is sciatica. Radiculopathy is a medical term used to spell out pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in legs or the arms caused by a nerve root issue. It’s known as a cervical radiculopathy, in the event the nerve difficulty is in the neck. But since sciatica influences the low back, it is called a lumbar.
Pathways To Sciatic Nerve Pain
Five sets of matched nerve roots in the lumbar spine combine to generate the sciatic nerve. Beginning at the rear of the pelvis (sacrum), the sciatic nerve runs in the trunk, under the buttock, and down through the hip region into each leg. Nerve roots aren’t “solitary” structures but are part of the entire body’s entire nervous system capable of transmitting pain and sensation to different parts of the body. Radiculopathy happens when compression of a nerve root from a disc rupture (herniated disc) or bone spur (osteophyte) happens in the lumbar spine prior to it joining the sciatic nerve.
What Causes Sciatic Nerve Compression?
Several spinal ailments can cause spinal nerve compression and sciatica or lumbar radiculopathy.
- piriformis syndrome
- spinal tumors
Common Sciatica Cause #1: Lumbar Bulging Disc or Herniated Disc
A bulging disk is also called a contained disc illness. What this means is the gel-like center (nucleus pulposus) remains “included” within the tire-like outer wall (annulus fibrosus) of the disk.
A herniated disc happens when the nucleus breaks through the annulus fibrosus. It is called a “non-controlled” disk disorder. Whether a disc bulges or herniates, disk stuff compress delicate nerve tissue and cause sciatica and can press against an adjacent nerve root.
The effects of a herniated disc are worse. In both instances, nerve compression and irritation cause inflammation and pain, muscle weakness, tingling, and often ultimately causing extremity numbness.
Common Sciatica Cause #2: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Spinal stenosis is a nerve compression illness most frequently affecting older adults. Leg pain similar to sciatica may happen as an effect of lumbar spinal stenosis. The pain is generally positional, frequently brought on by actions like standing or walking and relieved by sitting down.
Spinal nerve roots branch outward through passageways in the spinal cord called neural foramina comprised of bone and ligaments. Between each group of vertebral bodies, located on the left and right sides, is a foramen. Nerve roots pass through these openings and extend outward to innervate other portions of the body. The term foraminal stenosis can be used when these passageways become clogged causing nerve compression or narrow.
Common Sciatica Cause #3: Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis is a disorder that almost all commonly influences the lumbar spine. It’s distinguished by one vertebra slipping forwards over an adjacent vertebra. When a vertebra slips and is displaced, spinal nerve root compression happens and frequently causes sciatic leg pain. Spondylolisthesis is categorized as developmental (located at birth, grows during childhood) or got from spinal degeneration, trauma or physical stress (eg, lifting weights).
Common Sciatica Cause #4: Trauma
Examples include motor vehicle accidents, falling down, football and other sports. The impact may injure the nerves or, sometimes, the nerves may compress.
Piriformis syndrome is named after the piriformis muscle and the pain caused when the sciatic nerve is irritated by the muscle. The piriformis muscle and the thighbone is found in the lower part of the spine, connect, and aids in hip rotation. The sciatic nerve runs beneath the piriformis muscle. Piriformis syndrome grows when muscle spasms develop in the piriformis muscle thereby compressing the sciatic nerve. It may be challenging to diagnose and treat because of the shortage of x ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
Common Sciatica Cause #5: Piriformis Syndrome
Piriformis syndrome is named after the piriformis muscle when the muscle irritates the sciatic nerve and the pain caused. The piriformis muscle and the thighbone is located in the low part of the backbone, connect, and aids in hip rotation. When muscle spasms develop in the piriformis muscle thus compressing the sciatic nerve, piriformis syndrome develops. It can be hard to diagnose and treat due to the lack of x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
Common Sciatica Cause #6: Spinal Tumours
Spinal tumors are abnormal growths which are either benign or cancerous (malignant). Fortunately, spinal tumors are uncommon. But when a spinal tumor develops in the lumbar region, there’s a risk for sciatica to grow as a result of nerve compression.
Call your doctor should you imagine you have sciatica. The very first step toward relieving pain is a proper diagnosis.