Evaluation of Patients Presenting with Knee Pain: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Radiographs, and Laboratory Tests
Knee pain is a common health issue among athletes and the general population alike. Although symptoms of knee pain can be debilitating and frustrating, knee pain is often a very treatable health issue. The knee is a complex structure made up of three bones: the lower section of the thighbone, the upper region of the shinbone, and the kneecap.
Powerful soft tissues, such as the tendons and ligaments of the knee as well as the cartilage beneath the kneecap and between the bones, hold these structures together in order to stabilize and support the knee. However, a variety of injuries and/or conditions can ultimately lead to knee pain. The purpose of the article below is to evaluate patients with knee pain.
The tendons are powerful soft tissues which connect the muscles to the bones. One of these tendons, the quadriceps tendon, works together with the muscles found at the front of the thigh in order to straighten the leg. A quadriceps tendon rupture can affect an individual’s quality of life.
A quadriceps tendon rupture can be a debilitating injury and it usually requires rehabilitation and surgical interventions to restore knee function. These type of injuries are rare. Quadriceps tendon ruptures commonly occur among athletes who perform jumping or running sports.
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture Description
The four quadriceps muscles come together above the kneecap, or patella, to form the quadriceps ten
The knee is a made up of a variety of complex soft tissues. Enclosing the knee joint is a fold at its membrane known as the plica. The knee is encapsulated by a fluid-filled structure called the synovial membrane. Three of these capsules, known as the synovial plicae, develop around the knee joint throughout the fetal stage and are absorbed before birth.
However, during one research study in 2006, researchers found that 95 percent of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery had remnants of their synovial plicae. Knee plica syndrome occurs when the plica becomes inflamed, generally due to sports injuries. This often takes place in the center of the kneecap, known as medial patellar plica syndrome.
What are the Symptoms of Knee Plica Syndrome?
Sports injuries like chondromalacia patellae are frequently regarded as an overuse injury. Taking some time off from participating in physical activities and exercise may produce superior outcomes. In the instance that the individual’s health issues are due to improper knee alignment, rest may not offer pain relief. Symptoms of runner’s knee include knee pain and grinding sensations.
What Causes Chondromalacia
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of knee pain in growing adolescents. It is characterized by the inflammation of the site below the knee where the tendon from the kneecap, or the patellar tendon, attaches to the shinbone, or tibia. Osgood-Schlatter disease occurs during growth spurts when muscles, bones, tendons, and other tissues shift rapidly.
Physical activities can place additional stress on the bones, muscles, tendons and other complex structures of young athletes. Children and adolescents who participate in running and jumping sports have a higher chance of developing this condition. However, less active children and adolescents may also experience this well-known health issue.
In the majority of instances, Osgood-Schlatte
Sinding-Larsen-Johansson, or SLJ, syndrome is a debilitating knee condition that most commonly affects teens during periods of rapid growth. The kneecap, or patella, is attached to the shinbone, or tibia, from the patellar tendon. The tendon connects to an expansion plate at the bottom of the kneecap throughout growth.
Repetitive stress on the patellar tendon can make the growth plate within the knee become inflamed and irritated. SLJ mainly develops in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 15 because that is when most people experience growth spurts. SLJ is most common in young athletes due to excess or repetitive strain in the knee.
Causes of SLJ Syndrome
The large mus
Patellar tendinitis is a common health issue characterized by the inflammation of the tendon which joins the kneecap, or patella, to the shinbone, or tibia. The knee pain associated with this problem may range from mild to severe depending on the circumstances of the knee injury.
Patellar tendinitis, or jumper’s knee, is a well-known sports injury among athletes who play in basketball and volleyball. Among recreational volleyball players, an estimated 14.4 percent of them have jumper’s knee, where the incidence is even higher for professional athletes. An estimated 40 to 50 percent of elite volleyball players have patellar tendinitis.
Causes of Patellar Tendinitis
Patellar tendinitis is caused by repeti
The rectus femoris muscle attaches to the pelvis and just below the knee as it is one of four muscles found at the front part of the thigh. It functions by extending the knee and flexing the hip. The rectus femoris muscle is made up of fibers which adapt to quick action. Rectus femoris muscle strain is caused by forceful movements, such as kicking a ball or when beginning to sprint, and it is particularly vulnerable to stress and pressure.
Painful symptoms generally manifest at the top of the thigh after the rectus femoris muscle suffers a strain or tear. In severe cases, the health issue may even become noticeable if the tissue is completely ruptured. Fortunately, complete tears are rare. Healthcare professionals will commonly use an MRI scan to diagnose the extent of the sports injury. Proper diagnosis and treatment are ess
The hip is commonly described as a “ball-and-socket” type joint. In a healthy hip, the ball at the top end of the thighbone, or femur, should fit firmly into the socket, which is part of the large pelvis bone. In babies and children with developmental dysplasia, or dislocation, of the hip, abbreviated as DDH, the hip joint may not have formed normally. As a result, the ball of the femur might easily dislocate and become loose from the socket.
Although DDH is often present from birth, it could also develop during a child’s first year of life. Recent research studies have demonstrated that infants whose thighs are swaddled closely with the hips and knees straight are at a higher risk for developing DDH. Because swaddling has become increasingly popular, it is essential for parents to understand how to swaddle their babies safely, and the
Hip pain is a well-known health issue which can be caused by a wide array of problems, however, the site of the patient’s hip pain can provide valuable information regarding the underlying cause of this common health issue. Pain on the inside of the hip or groin can be due to problems within the hip joint itself while pain on the outside of the hip, upper thigh and outer buttocks may be due to problems with the ligaments, tendons
Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of al
Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder that leads to dwarfism. In those with the condition, the legs and arms are short, while the chest is generally of regular length. Those affected have an average adult height of 131 centimetres (4 ft 4 in) for males and 123 centimetres (4 feet ) for females. Other features include a prominent forehead and an enlarged head. Intelligence is typically considered normal in people with achondroplasia. The condition affects approximately 1 in 27,500 individuals.
Diagnosis for Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia is the result of a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. This occurs during early development as a new mutation. It is also inherited from the parents in an autosomal dominant way. Those with two affected genes do not survive.