Screening tests are typically the first assessment completed and are used to determine if further diagnostic testing might be needed. Because screening tests are the first step towards diagnosis, they are designed to be more likely to overestimate the true incidence of a disease. Designed to be different from diagnostic tests in that they might demonstrate more positive results than a diagnostic test. This can lead to both true positives as well as false positives. Once a screening test is found to be positive, a diagnostic test is then completed to confirm the diagnosis. Next we will discuss the assessment of diagnostic tests.
Many screening tests are available for physicians and advanced chiropractic practitioners to utilize in their practice. For some tests, there is quite a bit of research demonstrating the benefit of such tests on early diagnosis and treatment. Dr. Alex Jimenez presents appropriate assessment and diagnostic tools used in office to further clarify and appropriated diagnostic assessments.
Spondylolisthesis occurs when a vertebra of the spine slips forward over the vertebra below it. Spondylolisthesis can be categorized as: congenital spondylolisthesis, which means the disorder is present at birth; isthmic spondylolisthesis, which occurs when a defect occurs in a supportive vertebral structure of the spine; and degenerative spondylolisthesis, which is more common and is frequently associated with degenerative disc disease, or DDD, where the intervertebral discs lose hydration with age.
Development of Spondylolisthesis
The spinal column is exposed to directional pressures while it carries, absorbs, and also distributes most of the fat of the body throughout physical activities and during rest. To put it differently, while the spine is consuming and carrying body fat,
Scoliosis is a medical condition where an individual’s spine is diagnosed with an abnormal curve. The natural curvature of the spine is generally “S” shaped when viewed laterally, or from the side, and it should appear straight when viewed from the front or back. In many instances, the abnormal curvature of the spine with scoliosis increases over time, while in others, it remains the same. Scoliosis can cause a variety of symptoms.
Scoliosis affects approximately 3 percent of the population. The cause of most instances is unknown, however, it is believed to involve a mixture of environmental and genetic variables. Risk factors include having relatives with the same problem. It may also develop due to other health issues, such as Marfan syndrome, cerebral palsy, muscle spasms, and tumors like neurofibromatosis. Scoliosis commonly develops
Rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, is a chronic health issue which affects approximately 1 percent of the population in the United States. RA is an autoimmune disorder that causes the inflammation and degeneration of the synovial tissue, specific cells and tissue which form the lining of the joints within the human body. Rheumatoid arthritis may and generally does affect every joint in the body, especially as people get older. RA commonly develops in the joints of the hands and feet, severely restricting an individual’s ability to move, however, those with significant disease in the spine are at risk of damage like paraplegia. Rheumatoid arthritis of the spine is frequent in three areas, causing different clinical problems.
The first is basilar invagination, also referred to as cranial settling or superior migration of the odontoid, a
A teardrop fracture is caused when the anteroinferior aspect of a cervical vertebral body is damaged due to flexion of the spine together with vertical compression. The fracture throughout the body is also associated with deformity of the human body and subluxation or dislocation of the facet joints. A teardrop fracture is generally associated with a spinal cord injury due to the displacement of the anterior portion of the body into the spine.
The flexion teardrop fracture shouldn’t be confused with a similar-looking vertebral fracture called “expansion teardrop fracture”. Both usually happen in the cervical spine, but as their names indicate, they result from other mechanisms (flexion-compression vs. hyperextension). Both are linked to a small fragment being broken apart from the anteroinferior corner of the affected vertebra. Flexion teardrop fractures normally involve instability in most elements of the ba
A vertebral fracture is a common health issue which can often cause bone fragments to damage the spinal chord and nerve roots. Broken bones can occur due to trauma or injury from automobile accidents, slip-and-fall accidents, or sports injuries, among other causes. Depending on how severe the vertebral fracture is, individuals may have difficulty performing everyday activities. The purpose of the article below is to demonstrate and discuss vertebral fracture diagnosis imaging studies and their results.
Vertebral fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine are usually associated with major trauma and can cause spinal cord damage that results in neural deficits. Each vertebral region has unique anatomical and functional features that result in specific injuries.
Imaging diagnostics are an essential element in the evaluation of spine trauma. Over the last few decades, the rapid evolution of imaging technology has tremendously changed the assessment and treatment of spinal injuries. Imaging diagnostics utilizing CT and MRI, among others, are helpful in the acute and the chronic settings. Spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries are best evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, whereas computed tomography scanning, or CT scans, best evaluate spinal trauma or spine fracture. The purpose of the article below is to demonstrate the significance of imaging diagnostics in spine trauma.
Cervical Spine Fracture Evaluation
Approximately 5-10% of unconscious patients who
Imaging diagnostics of the spine consist from radiographies to computed tomography scanning, or CT scans, in which CT is utilized in conjunction with myelography and most recently with magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI. These imaging diagnostics are being used to determine the presence of abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. The following article describes various imaging modalities and their application in the evaluation of common spinal disorders described.
While computed tomography scanning, or CT scans, of the cervical spine are frequently utilized to help diagnose neck injuries, simple radiographs are still commonly performed for patients who have experienced minor cervical spine injuries with moderate neck pain, such as those who have suffered a slip-and-fall accident. Imaging diagnostic assessments may reveal underlying injuries and/or aggravated conditions to be more severe than the nature of the trauma. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the significance of cervical spine radiographs in the trauma patient.
Significant cervical spine injury is very unlikely in a case of trauma if the patient has normal mental status (including no drug or alcohol use) and no neck pain, no tenderness on neck palpation, no neurologic
Many types of arthritis can affect the structure and function of the muscles, bones and/or joints, causing symptoms such as, pain, stiffness and swelling. While arthritis can commonly affect the hands, wrists, elbows, hips, knees and feet, it can also affect the facet joints found along the length of the spine. One of the most well-known types of arthritis, known as rheumatoid arthritis or RA, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints which occurs when the human body’s own immune system attacks the
Spinal trauma consists of spine fractures, or spinal fractures, and spinal cord injuries. Approximately 12,000 spinal trauma cases are reported in the United States every year. While the most prevalent causes of spinal cord injuries and spine fractures are automobile accidents and falls, spinal trauma can also be attributed to assault, sports injuries, and work-related accidents. Diagnosis of spinal trauma includes imaging and assessment of nerve function, such as reflex, motor, and sensation. The following article discusses the role of emergency radiology in spinal trauma. Chiropractic care can help provide diagnostic evaluations for spinal trauma.
Spinal trauma is