Case Control Studies compare patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and look back in retrospect to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease.
Case control studies are observational because no type of intervention is attempted and no attempt is made to alter the course of the disease or condition. The goal is to determine the exposure to the risk factor of interest from each of the two groups of individuals retrospectively: These studies are designed to estimate odds.
They are also known as Retrospective Studies, & Case Referent Studies.
1. Case-control studies work backwards: They first identify diseased and non-diseased individuals, and then ascertain the frequency of previous exposures.
2. Ideal characteristics for selecting cases:
a. Select individuals who have incident disease
b. Use a specific definition of the disease
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