Evaluation of Patients Presenting with Knee Pain: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Radiographs, and Laboratory Tests
Knee pain is a common health issue among athletes and the general population alike. Although symptoms of knee pain can be debilitating and frustrating, knee pain is often a very treatable health issue. The knee is a complex structure made up of three bones: the lower section of the thighbone, the upper region of the shinbone, and the kneecap.
Powerful soft tissues, such as the tendons and ligaments of the knee as well as the cartilage beneath the kneecap and between the bones, hold these structures together in order to stabilize and support the knee. However, a variety of injuries and/or conditions can ultimately lead to knee pain. The purpose of the article below is to evaluate patients with knee pain.
The tendons are powerful soft tissues which connect the muscles to the bones. One of these tendons, the quadriceps tendon, works together with the muscles found at the front of the thigh in order to straighten the leg. A quadriceps tendon rupture can affect an individual’s quality of life.
A quadriceps tendon rupture can be a debilitating injury and it usually requires rehabilitation and surgical interventions to restore knee function. These type of injuries are rare. Quadriceps tendon ruptures commonly occur among athletes who perform jumping or running sports.
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture Description
The four quadriceps muscles come together above the kneecap, or patella, to form the quadriceps ten
The knee is a made up of a variety of complex soft tissues. Enclosing the knee joint is a fold at its membrane known as the plica. The knee is encapsulated by a fluid-filled structure called the synovial membrane. Three of these capsules, known as the synovial plicae, develop around the knee joint throughout the fetal stage and are absorbed before birth.
However, during one research study in 2006, researchers found that 95 percent of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery had remnants of their synovial plicae. Knee plica syndrome occurs when the plica becomes inflamed, generally due to sports injuries. This often takes place in the center of the kneecap, known as medial patellar plica syndrome.
What are the Symptoms of Knee Plica Syndrome?
Sports injuries like chondromalacia patellae are frequently regarded as an overuse injury. Taking some time off from participating in physical activities and exercise may produce superior outcomes. In the instance that the individual’s health issues are due to improper knee alignment, rest may not offer pain relief. Symptoms of runner’s knee include knee pain and grinding sensations.
What Causes Chondromalacia
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of knee pain in growing adolescents. It is characterized by the inflammation of the site below the knee where the tendon from the kneecap, or the patellar tendon, attaches to the shinbone, or tibia. Osgood-Schlatter disease occurs during growth spurts when muscles, bones, tendons, and other tissues shift rapidly.
Physical activities can place additional stress on the bones, muscles, tendons and other complex structures of young athletes. Children and adolescents who participate in running and jumping sports have a higher chance of developing this condition. However, less active children and adolescents may also experience this well-known health issue.
In the majority of instances, Osgood-Schlatte
Sinding-Larsen-Johansson, or SLJ, syndrome is a debilitating knee condition that most commonly affects teens during periods of rapid growth. The kneecap, or patella, is attached to the shinbone, or tibia, from the patellar tendon. The tendon connects to an expansion plate at the bottom of the kneecap throughout growth.
Repetitive stress on the patellar tendon can make the growth plate within the knee become inflamed and irritated. SLJ mainly develops in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 15 because that is when most people experience growth spurts. SLJ is most common in young athletes due to excess or repetitive strain in the knee.
Causes of SLJ Syndrome
The large mus
Patellar tendinitis is a common health issue characterized by the inflammation of the tendon which joins the kneecap, or patella, to the shinbone, or tibia. The knee pain associated with this problem may range from mild to severe depending on the circumstances of the knee injury.
Patellar tendinitis, or jumper’s knee, is a well-known sports injury among athletes who play in basketball and volleyball. Among recreational volleyball players, an estimated 14.4 percent of them have jumper’s knee, where the incidence is even higher for professional athletes. An estimated 40 to 50 percent of elite volleyball players have patellar tendinitis.
Causes of Patellar Tendinitis
Patellar tendinitis is caused by repeti
Pain along the pelvis and groin region is known as osteitis pubis. Osteitis pubis develops through the inflammation of the pubic symphysis, or the joints of the major pelvic bones found at the front of the pelvis.
The pubic symphysis is a thin joint which generally provides very minimal motion. The joint retains the two sides of the pelvis together in the front, where they connect at the sacrum in the rear side of the pelvis.
Osteitis Pubis Symptoms
Osteitis pubis is commonly characterized by pain in the front of the pelvis. Other causes of pelvic pain, such as a strain or a sprain, are frequently confused and diagnosed as osteitis pubis. While many patients report painful symptoms on one side, the pain typically occurs in the mid
Sciatica is a collection of symptoms in the low back, which radiate down one or both legs. Sciatica is generally caused by the compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve, the largest nerve in the human body. One of the most common health issues that cause sciatic nerve pain is called piriformis syndrome. The piriformis muscle stretches from the front of the sacrum, the triangle-shaped bone between the hipbones on the pelvis.
The piriformis muscle extends to the top of the femur around the sciatic nerve. The femur, as previously mentioned, is the large bone in the upper leg. The piriformis muscle functions by helping the thigh move from side to side. A piriformis muscle spasm, or any other type of injury and/or condition along the piriformis muscle, can place pressure on the sciatic nerve and cause pain and discomfort. The resu
Athletic pubalgia is a debilitating health issue which affects the groin. The injury commonly happens through sports that use sudden changes of direction or intense twisting motions. Also referred to as a sports
Physiology of Athletic Pubalgia
The soft tissues most often affected by athletic pubalgia are the oblique muscles found in the lower abdomen, especially in the tendons that attach the oblique muscles to the pubic bone. In many instances, the joints that connect the thigh muscles to the pubic bone, kno
Athletic pubalgia, also known as a hockey hernia, hockey groin, Gilmore’s Groin, sports hernia, or groin disruption, is a health issue of the pubic joint. It is a condition characterized by chronic groin pain in athletes and identified by a dilated ring of the inguinal canal. Soccer and ice hockey players are the athletes most commonly affected by athletic
Athletic Pubalgia Symptoms
Symptoms of athletic pubalgia generally manifest as pain following physical activity, most frequently through hip extension, and twisting and turning movements. The painful symptoms usually radiate into the adductor mu
The rectus femoris muscle attaches to the pelvis and just below the knee as it is one of four muscles found at the front part of the thigh. It functions by extending the knee and flexing the hip. The rectus femoris muscle is made up of fibers which adapt to quick action. Rectus femoris muscle strain is caused by forceful movements, such as kicking a ball or when beginning to sprint, and it is particularly vulnerable to stress and pressure.
Painful symptoms generally manifest at the top of the thigh after the rectus femoris muscle suffers a strain or tear. In severe cases, the health issue may even become noticeable if the tissue is completely ruptured. Fortunately, complete tears are rare. Healthcare professionals will commonly use an MRI scan to diagnose the extent of the sports injury. Proper diagnosis and treatment are ess