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Fasting

Fasting is the abstinence or reduction from some or all meals, drink, or both, for a period of time.

  • Absolute or a quick fast is generally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a specified interval.
  • Tea and black coffee can be consumed
    Water fasting means abstinence from all food and drink except water.
  • Fasts can be intermittent or may be partially restrictive, limiting substances or particular foods.
  • In a physiological context, fasting can refer to the status of a person that has not eaten or to a Metabolic state.
  • Metabolic changes occur during fasting.

Ex: a person is believed to be fasting after 8-12 hours have elapsed since their last meal.

Metabolic changes from the fast state start after absorption of a meal usually 3-5 hours after eating.

Health Benefits:

  • Promotes Blood Sugar Control
  • Fights Inflammation
  • Enhances Heart Health
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol Levels
  • Prevents Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Increases Growth Hormone Secretion
  • Metabolism
  • Weight Loss
  • Muscle Strength

Types of Fasts:

  • A diagnostic fast means prolonged fasting from 8-72 hours (depending on age) conducted under observation to facilitate investigation of health complications, such as hypoglycemia.
  • Most types of fasts are performed over 24–72 hours
  • Health benefits increased weight loss
  • Better brain function.
  • People may also fast as part of a medical procedure or test, such as colonoscopy or operation.
  • Finally, fasting can be a part of a ritual.

Diagnostic tests are available to determine a fast state.


Understanding The Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

Understanding The Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

Do you feel:

  • Hungry in an hour or two after eating?
  • Unexplained weight gain?
  • Hormonal imbalances?
  • An overall sense of bloating?
  • A sense of fullness during and after meals?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then try considering intermittent fasting.

Intermittent fasting is a dietary approach that has become increasingly popular in recent years. Humans have practiced this method of eating for centuries since the time of the hunter-gatherer societies. Studies have been shown that people used it historically for medicinal purposes by ancient Rome, Greek, and Chinese civilizations. Fasting has even been used for spiritual reasons in certain religions, including Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.

What is Intermittent Fasting?

Fasting involves abstaining from calorie-containing food and beverage for at least twelve consecutive hours. This dietary party can be the result of several hormonal and metabolic changes in the body. Research shows that these changes may help promote specific health benefits, including weight loss, neuroprotective effects, decreased inflammation and can improve blood glucose and insulin levels.

16-8-fasting-header

Other methods involve abstaining from food for several days or even weeks, and intermittent fasting is one of the most common fasting methods that typically involves a shorter fasting period between 16 to 24 hours at regular intervals. Several types of intermittent fasting are determined by the duration of the “feeding window,” which is the timeframe of when the food is consumed, and the “fasting window,” which is the timeframe for the food to be avoided. Here are the other methods of fasting, which includes:

  • Time-restricted feeding (TRF): This type of fasting has a feeding window period from 4 to 12 hours every day, following by a fasting window for the remainder of the day when only water is permitted. The most common variation of time-restricted feeding is 16/8, which involves 16 consecutive hours of fasting per day.
  • Early time-restricted feeding (eTRF): This is a type of variation of time-restricted feeding that involves a 6-hour feeding window early in the day from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m., while the remainder of the day makes up for the fasting period.
  • Alternate day fasting (ADF): This type of fasting involves alternating one day of unrestricted eating with one day of complete fasting.
  • Period fasting (cycling fasting): This type involves fasting for one or two days per week with 5 or 6 days of eating as desired. The variations of periodic fasting include 5:2 and 6:1 fasting.
  • Modified fasting: This type of fasting has some methods of intermittent fasting like alternate day fasting. This fasting can be modified to include very-low-calorie consumption during the fasting window period.

How Does Intermittent Fasting Work?

Intermittent fasting is the result of changes in hormonal patterns and energy metabolism in the body. After consuming food, the contents are broken down into nutrients and are absorbed in the digestive tract. The carbohydrates are broken down, specifically, into glucose and absorb into the bloodstream, distributing it into the body’s tissue as the primary source of energy. The hormone insulin helps regulate the blood glucose levels by signaling the cells to uptake the glucose from the blood, where it provides fuel for the body to function.

With intermittent fasting, a person is done with a meal; the supply of glucose is depleted from the body. For the energy to meet its needs, the body will break down the glycogen, the storage form of glucose found in the liver and skeletal muscles. The body uses gluconeogenesis, which is a process where the liver produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.

meal-prep3-SM

Then after approximately 18 hours of intermittent fasting, the levels of insulin are low, and the process called lipolysis begins. During this process, the body starts to break down fat into free fatty acids. When there is an insufficient amount of glucose available to meet the body’s energy demand, the body itself will transition to using those fatty acids and fatty derived ketones for energy. This metabolic state is known as ketosis. Since liver cells are responsible for ketogenesis, which is the production of ketone bodies, the fatty acids start to break down in the mitochondria of cells by a process called beta-oxidation and start converting to ketones acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate.

The ketones are then used by muscle cells and neurons to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary carrier of energy in cells. Research has stated that the availability and use of the fatty acids and ketone bodies for energy replace the use of glucose in other vital body tissues, including the heart, liver, pancreas, and brain.

Four metabolic states are induced by fasting are referred to as the fast-fed cycle, and they are:

  • The fed state
  • The post-absorptive state
  • The fasting state
  • The starvation state

The physiological effect of intermittent fasting can also be achieved by following a ketogenic diet, very high fat and low carbohydrate diet. This diet’s purpose is to shift the body’s metabolic state into ketosis.

The Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

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Tons of research has demonstrated how intermittent fasting has a wide variety of health benefits, including:

  • Weight loss
  • Type 2 diabetes prevention and management
  • Improved cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Cellular cleansing
  • Decreased inflammation
  • Neuroprotection

Studies have been shown that several proposed mechanisms are responsible for these health effects of intermittent fasting and have proven to be beneficial to a person’s lifestyle.

Conclusion

Intermittent fasting has been practiced for centuries and has gain popularity in recent years. It involves abstaining from consuming foods for at least 12 consecutive hours by turning the fat cells into energy for the body to function. The health benefits that intermittent fasting provides is beneficial for an individual who is trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Some products help provide support to the gastrointestinal system as well as making sure that sugar metabolism is at a healthy level for the body.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

Dhillon, Kiranjit K. “Biochemistry, Ketogenesis.” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 21 Apr. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493179/#article-36345.

Hue, Louis, and Heinrich Taegtmeyer. “The Randle Cycle Revisited: a New Head for an Old Hat.” American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, American Physiological Society, Sept. 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2739696/.

Stockman, Mary-Catherine, et al. “Intermittent Fasting: Is the Wait Worth the Weight?” Current Obesity Reports, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959807/.

Unknown, Unknown. “Understand Intermittent Fasting.” Fullscript, 8 July, 2019, fullscript.com/blog/intermittent-fasting.

Zubrzycki, A, et al. “The Role of Low-Calorie Diets and Intermittent Fasting in the Treatment of Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes.” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: an Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30683819.

 

 

 

Fasting And Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms And Clinical Application

Fasting And Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms And Clinical Application

Alessio Nencioni, Irene Caffa, Salvatore Cortellino and Valter D. Longo

Abstract | The vulnerability of cancer cells to nutrient deprivation and their dependency on specific metabolites are emerging hallmarks of cancer. Fasting or fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) lead to wide alterations in growth factors and in metabolite levels, generating environments that can reduce the capability of cancer cells to adapt and survive and thus improving the effects of cancer therapies. In addition, fasting or FMDs increase resistance to chemotherapy in normal but not cancer cells and promote regeneration in normal tissues, which could help prevent detrimental and potentially life-threatening side effects of treatments. While fasting is hardly tolerated by patients, both animal and clinical studies show that cycles of low-calorie FMDs are feasible and overall safe. Several clinical trials evaluating the effect of fasting or FMDs on treatment-emergent adverse events and on efficacy outcomes are ongoing. We propose that the combination of FMDs with chemotherapy, immunotherapy or other treatments represents a potentially promising strategy to increase treatment efficacy, prevent resistance acquisition and reduce side effects.

Dietary and lifestyle-related factors are key determinants of the risk of developing cancer, with certain cancers being more dependent on dietary habits than others1–9 . Consistent with this notion, obesity is estimated to account for 14% to 20% of all cancer-related mortality in the United States7 , leading to guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for reducing the risk of developing cancer6 . In addition, given the emerging propensity of cancer cells, but not of normal tissues, to disobey anti-growth signals (owing to oncogenic mutations)10 and their inability to properly adapt to fasting conditions11,12, there is growing interest in the possibility that certain calorie-limited diets could also become an integral part of cancer prevention and, perhaps, of cancer treatment as a means to increase efficacy and tolerability of anticancer agents11–13.

Even though in the past decade we have witnessed unprecedented changes and remarkable advances in cancer treatment14,15, there remains a crucial need for more effective and, possibly, curative approaches for tumours but also, and just as importantly, for strategies to reduce the side effects of cancer treatments15,16. The issue of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) is one of the key hurdles in medical oncology15,16. In fact, many patients with cancer experience acute and/or longterm side effects of cancer treatments, which may require hospitalization and aggressive treatments (such as antibiotics, haematopoietic growth factors and blood transfusions) and profoundly affect their quality of life (for example, chemotherapyinduced peripheral neuropathy)16. Thus, effective toxicity-mitigating strategies are warranted and anticipated to have major medical, societal and economic impact15,16.

Fasting forces healthy cells to enter a slow division and highly protected mode that protects them against toxic insults derived from anticancer drugs while sensitizing different types of cancer cells to these therapeutics11,12,17. This discovery implies that a single dietary intervention could potentially help address different and equally important aspects of cancer therapy.

In this Opinion article, we discuss the biological rationale for using fasting or fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) to blunt TEAEs but also to prevent and treat cancer. We also illustrate the caveats of this experimental approach18,19 and the published and ongoing clinical studies in which fasting or FMDs have been applied to patients with cancer.

Systemic & Cellular Fasting Response

Fasting leads to changes in the activity of many metabolic pathways associated with the switch into a mode able to generate energy and metabolites using carbon sources released primarily from adipose tissue and in part from muscle. The changes in the levels of circulating hormones and metabolites translate into a reduction in cell division and metabolic activity of normal cells and ultimately protect them from chemotherapeutic insults11,12. Cancer cells, by disobeying the anti-growth orders dictated by these starvation conditions, can have the opposite response of normal cells and therefore become sensitized to chemotherapy and other cancer therapies.

Systemic Response To Fasting

The response to fasting is orchestrated in part by the circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone (GH), IGF1, glucocorticoids and adrenaline. During an initial post-absorptive phase, which typically lasts 6–24hours, insulin levels start to fall, and glucagon levels rise, promoting the breakdown of liver glycogen stores (which are exhausted after approximately 24hours) and the consequent release of glucose for energy.

Glucagon and low levels of insulin also stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides (which are mostly stored in adipose tissue) into glycerol and free fatty acids. During fasting, most tissues utilize fatty acids for energy, while the brain relies on glucose and on ketone bodies produced by hepatocytes (ketone bodies can be produced from acetyl-CoA generated from fatty acid β-oxidation or from ketogenic amino acids). In the ketogenic phase of fasting, ketone bodies reach concentrations in the millimolar range, typically starting after 2–3 days from the beginning of the fast. Together with fat-derived glycerol and amino acids, ketone bodies fuel gluconeogenesis, which maintains glucose levels at a concentration of approximately 4mM (70mg per dl), which is mostly utilized by the brain.

Glucocorticoids and adrenaline also contribute to direct the metabolic adaptations to fasting, helping maintain blood sugar levels and stimulating lipolysis20,21. Notably, although fasting can at least temporarily increase GH levels (to increase gluconeogenesis and lipolysis and to decrease peripheral glucose uptake), fasting reduces IGF1 levels. In addition, under fasting conditions, IGF1 biological activity is restrained in part by an increase in the levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), which binds to circulating IGF1 and prevents its interaction with the corresponding cell surface receptor22.

Finally, fasting decreases the levels of circulating leptin, a hormone predominantly made by adipocytes that inhibits hunger, while increasing the levels of adiponectin, which increases fatty acid breakdown23,24. Thus, in conclusion, the hallmarks of the mammalian systemic response to fasting are low levels of glucose and insulin, high levels of glucagon and ketone bodies, low levels of IGF1 and leptin and high levels of adiponectin.

Cellular Response To Fasting

The response of healthy cells to fasting is evolutionarily conserved and confers cell protection, and at least in model organisms, has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan12,22,25–31. The IGF1 signalling cascade is a key signalling pathway involved in mediating the effects of fasting at the cellular level. Under normal nutrition, protein consumption and increased levels of amino acids increase IGF1 levels and stimulate AKT and mTOR activity, thereby boosting protein synthesis. Vice versa, during fasting, IGF1 levels and downstream signalling decrease, reducing AKT-mediated inhibition of mammalian FOXO transcription factors and allowing these transcription factors to transactivate genes, leading to the activation of enzymes such as haem oxygenase 1 (HO1), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase with antioxidant activities and protective effects32–34. High glucose levels stimulate protein kinase A (PKA) signalling, which negatively regulates the master energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)35, which, in turn, prevents the expression of the stress resistance transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) (Msn2 and/or Msn4 in yeast)26,36.

Fasting and the resulting glucose restriction inhibit PKA activity, increase AMPK activity and activate EGR1 and thereby achieve cell-protective effects, including those in the myocardium22,25,26. Lastly, fasting and FMDs (see below for their composition) also have the ability to promote regenerative effects (Box 1) by molecular mechanisms, some of which have been implicated in cancer, such as increased autophagy or induction of sirtuin activity22,37–49.

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

Dietary Approaches In Cancer FMDs

The dietary approaches based on fasting that have been investigated more extensively in oncology, both preclinically and clinically, include water fasting (abstinence from all food and drinks except for water) and FMDs11,12,17,25,26,50–60 (Table 1). Preliminary clinical data indicate that a fast of at least 48hours may be required to achieve clinically meaningful effects in oncology, such as preventing chemotherapy-induced DNA damage to healthy tissues and helping to maintain patient quality of life during chemotherapy52,53,61.

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

However, most patients refuse or have difficulties completing water fasting, and the potential risks of the extended calorie and micronutrient deficiency associated with it are difficult to justify. FMDs are medically designed dietary regimes very low in calories (that is, typically between 300 and 1,100kcal per day), sugars and proteins that recreate many of the effects of water-only fasting but with better patient compliance and reduced nutritional risk22,61,62. During an FMD, patients typically receive unrestricted amounts of water, small, standardized portions of vegetable broths, soups, juices, nut bars, and herbal teas, as well as supplements of micronutrients. In a clinical study of 3 monthly cycles of a 5-day FMD in generally healthy subjects, the diet was well tolerated and reduced trunk and total body fat, blood pressure and IGF1 levels62. In previous and ongoing oncological clinical trials, fasting or FMDs have typically been administered every 3–4 weeks, for example, in combination with chemotherapy regimens, and their duration has ranged between 1 and 5 days52,53,58,61,63–68. Importantly, no serious adverse events (level G3 or above, according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) were reported in this studies52,53,58,61.

Ketogenic Diets

Ketogenic diets (KDs) are dietary regimens that have normal calorie, high-fat and low-carbohydrate content69,70. In a classical KD, the ratio between the weight of fat and the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein is 4:1. Of note, FMDs are also ketogenic because they have high-fat content and have the ability to induce substantial elevations (≥0.5mmol per litre) in the levels of circulating ketone bodies. In humans, a KD can also reduce IGF1 and insulin levels (by more than 20% from baseline values), although these effects are affected by the levels and types of carbohydrates and protein in the diet71. KDs can reduce blood glucose levels, but they normally remain within the normal range (that is,>4.4mmol per litre)71.

Notably, KDs may be effective for preventing the increase in glucose and insulin that typically occurs in response to PI3K inhibitors, which was proposed to limit their efficacy72. Traditionally, KDs have been used for treating refractory epilepsy, mainly in children69. In mouse models, KDs induce anticancer effects, particularly in glioblastoma70,72–86. Clinical studies indicate that KDs probably have no substantial therapeutic activity when used as single agents in patients with cancer and suggest that potential benefits of these diets should be sought in combination with other approaches, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, antiangiogenic treatments, PI3K inhibitors and FMDs72,73.

KDs were reported to have neuroprotective effects in peripheral nerves and in the hippocampus87,88. However, it remains to be established whether KDs also have proregenerative effects similar to fasting or FMDs (Box 1) and whether KDs also can be used to protect living mammals from the toxicity of chemotherapy. Notably, the regenerative effects of fasting or FMDs appear to be maximized by the switch from the starvation-response mode, which involves the breakdown of cellular components and the death of many cells, and the re-feeding period, in which cells and tissues undergo reconstruction22. Because KDs do not force entry into a starvation mode, do not promote a major breakdown of intracellular components and tissues and do not include a refeeding period, they are unlikely to cause the type of coordinated regeneration observed during the FMD refeeding.

Calorie Restriction

While chronic calorie restriction (CR) and diets deficient in specific amino acids are very different from periodic fasting, they share with fasting and FMDs a more or less selective restriction in nutrients, and they have anticancer effects81,89–112. CR typically involves a chronic 20–30% reduction in energy intake from the standard calorie intake that would allow an individual to maintain a normal weight113,114. It is very effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and cancer incidence in model organisms, including primates108,109,114.

However, CR can cause side effects, such as changes in physical appearance, increased cold sensitivity, reduced strength, menstrual irregularities, infertility, loss of libido, osteoporosis, slower wound healing, food obsession, irritability, and depression. In patients with cancer, there are substantial concerns that it may exacerbate malnutrition and that it will unavoidably cause excessive loss of lean body mass18,113–116. CR reduces fasting blood glucose levels, though they remain within the normal range114. In humans, chronic CR does not affect IGF1 levels unless a moderate protein restriction is also implemented117.

Studies show that by reducing mTORC1 signaling in Paneth cells, CR augments their stem cell function and that it also protects reserve intestinal stem cells from DNA damage118,119, but it is unknown whether pro-regenerative effects in other organs are also elicited by CR. Thus, the available data suggest that fasting and FMDs create a metabolic, regenerative and protective profile that is distinct and probably more potent than that elicited by a KD or CR.

Fasting & FMDs In Therapy: Effects on hormone and metabolite levels

Many of the changes in the levels of circulating hormones and metabolites that are typically observed in response to fasting have the capability to exert antitumour effects (that is, reduced levels of glucose, IGF1, insulin and leptin and increased levels of adiponectin)23,120,121 and/or to afford protection of healthy tissues from side effects (that is, reduced levels of IGF1 and glucose). Because ketone bodies can inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs), the fasting-induced increase of ketone bodies may help slow tumor growth and promote differentiation through epigenetic mechanisms122.

However, the ketone body acetoacetate has been shown to accelerate, instead of reduce, the growth of certain tumors, such as melanomas with mutated BRAF123. Those changes for which there is the strongest evidence for a role in the beneficial effects of fasting and FMDs against cancer are the reductions in the levels of IGF1 and glucose. At the molecular level, fasting or an FMD reduces intracellular signaling cascades including IGF1R–AKT–mTOR–S6K and cAMP–PKA signaling, increases autophagy, helps normal cells withstand stress and promotes anticancer immunity25,29,56,124

Differential Stress Resistance: Increasing Chemotherapy Tolerability

Some yeast oncogene orthologues, such as Ras and Sch9 (functional orthologue of mammalian S6K), are able to decrease stress resistance in model organisms27,28. In addition, mutations that activate IGF1R, RAS, PI3KCA or AKT, or that inactivate PTEN, are present in the majority of human cancers10. Together, this led to the hypothesis that starvation would cause opposite effects in cancer versus normal cells in terms of their ability to withstand cell stressors, including chemotherapeutics. In other words, starvation can lead to a differential stress resistance (DSR) between normal and cancer cells.

According to the DSR hypothesis, normal cells respond to starvation by downregulating proliferation associated and ribosome biogenesis and/or assembly genes, which forces cells to enter a self-maintenance mode and shields them from the damage caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other toxic agents. By contrast, in cancer cells, this self-maintenance mode is prevented through oncogenic changes, which cause constitutive inhibition of stress response pathways12 (Fig. 1). Consistent with the DSR model, short-term starvation or the deletion of proto-oncogene homologues (that is, Sch9 or both Sch9 and Ras2) increased protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative stress or chemotherapy drugs by up to 100-fold as compared with yeast cells expressing the constitutively active oncogene homologue Ras2val19.

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

Similar results were obtained in mammalian cells: exposure to low-glucose media protected primary mouse glia cells against toxicity from hydrogen peroxide or cyclophosphamide (a prooxidant chemotherapeutic) but did not protect mouse, rat and human glioma and neuroblastoma cancer cell lines. Consistent with these observations, a 2-day fasting effectively increased the survival of mice treated with high-dose etoposide compared with non-fasted mice and increased the survival of neuroblastoma allograftbearing mice compared with non-fasted tumor-bearing mice12.

Subsequent studies found that reduced IGF1 signaling in response to fasting protects primary glia and neurons, but not glioma and neuroblastoma cells, from cyclophosphamide and from pro-oxidative compounds and protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts from doxorubicin29. Liver IGF1-deficient (LID) mice, transgenic animals with a conditional liver Igf1 gene deletion that exhibit a 70–80% reduction in circulating IGF1 levels (levels similar to those achieved by a 72-hour fast in mice)29,125, were protected against three out of four chemotherapy drugs tested, including doxorubicin.

Histology studies showed signs of doxorubicin-induced cardiac myopathy in only doxorubicin-treated control mice but not in LID mice. In experiments with melanoma-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin, no difference in terms of disease progression between control and LID mice was observed, indicating that cancer cells were not protected from chemotherapy by reduced IGF1 levels. Yet, again, tumour-bearing LID mice exhibited a remarkable survival advantage compared with the control animals owing to their ability to withstand doxorubicin toxicity29. Thus, overall, these results confirmed that IGF1 downregulation is a key mechanism by which fasting increases chemotherapy tolerability.

Both dexamethasone and mTOR inhibitors are widely used in cancer treatment, either because of their efficacy as anti-emetics and anti-allergics (that is, corticosteroids) or for their antitumour properties (that is, corticosteroids and mTOR inhibitors). However, one of their main and frequently dose-limiting side effects is hyperglycaemia. Consistent with the notion that increased glucose–cAMP– PKA signalling reduces resistance to toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs12,26,126, both dexamethasone and rapamycin increase toxicity of doxorubicin in mouse cardiomyocytes and mice26. Interestingly it was possible to reverse such toxicity by reducing circulating glucose levels through either fasting or insulin injections26.

These interventions reduce PKA activity while increasing AMPK activity and thereby activating EGR1, indicating that cAMP– PKA signalling mediates the fasting-induced DSR via EGR1 (ref. 26). EGR1 also promotes the expression of cardioprotective peptides, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in heart tissue, which contributes to the resistance to doxorubicin. Furthermore, fasting and/or FMD might protect mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by boosting autophagy, which may promote cellular health by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria and by removal of toxic aggregates.

In addition to reducing chemotherapyinduced toxicity in cells and increasing survival of chemotherapy-treated mice, cycles of fasting induce bone marrow regeneration and prevent the immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide in a PKA-related and IGF1-related manner25. Thus, compelling preclinical results indicate the potential of fasting and FMDs to increase chemotherapy tolerability and to avoid major side effects. Because initial clinical data lend further support to this potential, these preclinical studies build a strong rationale for evaluating FMDs in randomized clinical trials with TEAEs as a primary end point.

Differential Stress Sensitization: Increasing The Death of Cancer Cells

If used alone, most dietary interventions, including fasting and FMDs, have limited effects against cancer progression. According to the differential stress sensitization (DSS) hypothesis, the combination of fasting or FMDs with a second treatment is much more promising11,12. This hypothesis predicts that, while cancer cells are able to adapt to limited oxygen and nutrient concentrations, many types of cancer cells are not able to execute changes that would allow survival in the nutrient-deficient and toxic environment generated by the combination of fasting and chemotherapy, for example. Early experiments in breast cancer, melanoma and glioma cells found a paradoxical increase in the expression of proliferation-associated genes or of ribosome biogenesis and assembly genes in response to fasting11,12. Such changes were accompanied by unexpected AKT and S6K activation, a propensity to generate ROS and DNA damage and a sensitization to DNA-damaging drugs (via DSS)11.

We consider such an inappropriate response of cancer cells to the altered conditions including the reduction in IGF1 and glucose levels caused by fasting or FMDs as a key mechanism underlying the antitumour properties of these dietary interventions and their potential usefulness for separating the effects of anticancer treatments on normal versus malignant cells11,12 (Fig. 1). In line with the DSS hypothesis, periodic cycles of fasting or of FMDs are sufficient to slow the growth of many types of tumour cells, ranging from solid tumour cell lines to lymphoid leukaemia cells, in the mouse and, most importantly, to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutics, radiotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)11,17,22,25,50,54–57,59,60,124,127,128.

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

By reducing glucose availability and increasing fatty acid β-oxidation, fasting or FMDs can also promote a switch from aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells, which is necessary for sustaining cancer cell growth in the most nutrient-poor environment50 (Fig. 2). This switch leads to increased ROS production11 as a result of increased mitochondrial respiratory activity and may also involve a reduction in cellular redox potential owing to decreased glutathione synthesis from glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway50. The combined effect of ROS augmentation and reduced antioxidant protection boosts oxidative stress in cancer cells and amplifies the activity of chemotherapeutics. Notably, because a high glycolytic activity demonstrated by high-lactate production is predictive of aggressiveness and metastatic propensity in several types of cancer129, the anti-Warburg effects of fasting or FMD have the potential to be particularly effective against aggressive and metastatic cancers.

Apart from a change in metabolism, fasting or FMDs elicit other changes that can promote DSS in pancreatic cancer cells. Fasting increases the expression levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1), the transporter of gemcitabine across the plasma membrane, leading to improved activity of this drug128. In breast cancer cells, fasting causes SUMO2-mediated and/or SUMO3-mediated modification of REV1, a DNA polymerase and a p53-binding protein127. This modification reduces the ability of REV1 to inhibit p53, leading to increased p53-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic genes and, ultimately, to cancer cell demise (Fig. 2). Fasting also increases the ability of commonly administered TKIs to stop cancer cell growth and/or death by strengthening MAPK signalling inhibition and, thereby, blocking E2F transcription factor-dependent gene expression but also by reducing glucose uptake17,54.

Finally, fasting can upregulate the leptin receptor and its downstream signalling through the protein PR/SET domain 1 (PRDM1) and thereby inhibit the initiation and reverse the progression of B cell and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but not of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)55. Interestingly, an independent study demonstrated that B cell precursors exhibit a state of chronic restriction in glucose and energy supplies imposed by the transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1 (ref. 130). Mutations in the genes encoding these two proteins, which are present in more than 80% of the cases of pre-B cell ALL, were shown to increase glucose uptake and ATP levels. However, reconstituting PAX5 and IKZF1 in preB-ALL cells led to an energy crisis and cell demise. Taken together with the previous study, this work indicates that ALL may be sensitive to the nutrient and energy restriction imposed by fasting, possibly representing a good clinical candidate for testing the efficacy of fasting or FMD.

Notably, it is likely that many cancer cell types, including AML29, can acquire resistance by circumventing the metabolic changes imposed by fasting or FMDs, a possibility that is further increased by the metabolic heterogeneity that characterizes many cancers129. Thus, a major goal for the near future will be to identify the types of cancer that are most susceptible to these dietary regimens by means of biomarkers. On the other hand, when combined with standard therapies, fasting or FMDs have rarely resulted in the acquisition of resistance in cancer mouse models, and resistance to fasting combined with chemotherapy is also uncommon in studies in vitro, underlining the importance of identifying therapies that, when combined with FMDs, result in potent toxic effects against cancer cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells and tissues11,17,50,55–57,59,124.

Antitumour Immunity Enhancement by Fasting or FMD

Recent data suggest that fasting or FMDs by themselves, and to a greater extent when combined with chemotherapy, trigger the expansion of lymphoid progenitors and promote tumour immune attack via different mechanisms25,56,60,124. An FMD reduced the expression of HO1, a protein that confers protection against oxidative damage and apoptosis, in cancer cells in vivo but upregulated HO1 expression in normal cells124,131. HO1 downregulation in cancer cells mediates FMD-induced chemosensitization by increasing CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte-dependent cytotoxicity, which may be facilitated by the downregulation of regulatory T cells124 (Fig. 2). Another study, which confirmed the ability of fasting or FMDs and CR mimetics to improve anticancer immunosurveillance, implies that the anticancer effects of fasting or FMDs may apply to autophagy competent, but not autophagy-deficient, cancers56. Finally, a recent study of alternate-day fasting for 2 weeks in a mouse colon cancer model showed that, by activating autophagy in cancer cells, fasting downregulates CD73 expression and consequently decreases the production of immunosuppressive adenosine by cancer cells60. Ultimately, CD73 downregulation via fasting was shown to prevent macrophage shift to an M2 immunosuppressive phenotype (Fig. 2). On the basis of these studies, it is appealing to speculate that FMDs could be particularly useful instead of or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors132, cancer vaccines or other drugs that prompt antitumour immunity, including some conventional chemotherapeutics133.

Anticancer Diets in Mouse Models

Overall, the results of preclinical studies of fasting or FMDs in animal cancer models, including models for metastatic cancer (Table 2), show that periodic fasting or FMDs achieve pleiotropic anticancer effects and potentiate the activity of chemotherapeutics and TKIs while exerting protective and regenerative effects in multiple organs22,25. Achieving the same effects without fasting and/or FMDs would require first the identification and then the use of multiple effective, expensive and frequently toxic drugs and would probably be without the advantage of inducing healthy cell protection. It is noteworthy that in at least two studies fasting combined with chemotherapy proved to be the only intervention capable of achieving either complete tumour regressions or long-term survival in a consistent fraction of the treated animals11,59

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

Chronic KDs also show a tumour growth-delaying effect when used as a monotherapy, particularly in brain cancer mouse models77,78,80–82,84,134. Gliomas in mice maintained on a chronic KD have reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 and of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, decreased nuclear factor-κB activation and reduced vascular marker expression (that is, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and vimentin)86. In an intracranial mouse model of glioma, mice fed a KD exhibited increased tumour-reactive innate and adaptive immune responses that were primarily mediated by CD8+ T cells79. KDs were shown to improve the activity of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy in glioma, lung cancer and neuroblastoma mouse models73–75,135. In addition, a recent study shows that a KD could be very useful in combination with PI3K inhibitors72. By blocking insulin signalling, these agents promote glycogen breakdown in the liver and prevent glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, which leads to transient hyperglycaemia and to a compensatory insulin release from the pancreas (a phenomenon known as ‘insulin feedback’). In turn, this raise in insulin levels, which can be protracted, particularly in patients with insulin resistance, reactivates PI3K–mTOR signalling in tumours, thus strongly limiting the benefit of PI3K inhibitors. A KD was shown to be very effective at preventing insulin feedback in response to these drugs and to strongly improve their anticancer activity in the mouse. Finally, according to a study in a murine tumour-induced cachexia model (MAC16 tumours), KDs could help prevent the loss of fat and non-fat body mass in patients with cancer85.

CR reduced tumorigenesis in genetic mouse cancer models, mouse models with spontaneous tumorigenesis and carcinogen induced cancer mouse models, as well as in monkeys91,92,97,98,101,102,104–106,108,109,136–138. By contrast, a study found that CR from middle age actually increases the incidence of plasma cell neoplasms in C57Bl/6 mice139. However, in the same study, CR also extended maximum lifespan by approximately 15%, and the observed increase in cancer incidence was attributed to the increased longevity of mice undergoing CR, the age at which tumour-bearing mice undergoing CR died and the percentage of tumour-bearing mice undergoing CR that died. Thus, the authors concluded that CR probably retards promotion and/or progression of existing lymphoid cancers. A meta-analysis comparing chronic CR with intermittent CR in terms of their ability to prevent cancer in rodents concluded that intermittent CR is more effective in genetically engineered mouse models, but it is less effective in chemically induced rat models90. CR was shown to slow tumour growth and/or to extend mouse survival in various cancer mouse models, including ovarian and pancreatic cancer140,94 and neuroblastoma81.

Importantly, CR improved the activity of anticancer treatment in several cancer models, including the activity of an antiIGF1R antibody (ganitumab) against prostate cancer141, cyclophosphamide against neuroblastoma cells135 and autophagy inhibition in xenografts of HRAS-G12Vtransformed immortal baby mouse kidney epithelial cells100. However, CR or a KD in combination with anticancer therapies seems to be less effective than fasting. A mouse study found that, in contrast to fasting alone, CR alone was not able to reduce the growth of subcutaneously growing GL26 mouse gliomas and that, again, in contrast to short-term fasting, CR did not increase cisplatin activity against subcutaneous 4T1 breast tumours51. In the same study, fasting also proved substantially more effective than CR and a KD at increasing the tolerability of doxorubicin51. Although fasting or an FMD, CR and a KD likely act on and modulate overlapping signalling pathways, fasting or an FMD probably affects such mechanisms in a more drastic fashion during an intense acute phase of a maximum duration of a few days.

The phase of refeeding could then favour the recovery of homeostasis of the whole organism but also activate and invigorate mechanisms that can promote the recognition and removal of the tumour and regenerate the healthy cells. CR and a KD are chronic interventions that are able to only moderately repress nutrient-sensing pathway, possibly without reaching certain thresholds necessary to improve the effects of anticancer drugs, while imposing a major burden and often a progressive weight loss. CR and a KD as chronic dietary regimens in patients with cancer are difficult to implement and likely bear health risks. CR would likely lead to severe loss of lean body mass and the reduction of steroid hormones and possibly immune function142. Chronic KDs are also associated with similar although less severe side effects143. Thus, periodic fasting and FMD cycles lasting less than 5 days applied together with standard therapies have a high potential to improve cancer treatment while reducing its side effects. Notably, it will be important to study the effect of the combination of periodic FMDs, chronic KDs and standard therapies, particularly for the treatment of aggressive cancers such as glioma.

Fasting and FMDs in Cancer Prevention

Epidemiological studies and studies in animals, including monkeys108,109,144, and humans lend support to the notion that chronic CR and periodic fasting and/or an FMD could have cancer-preventive effects in humans. Nevertheless, CR can hardly be implemented in the general population owing to issues of compliance and to possible side effects115. Thus, while evidence-based recommendations of foods to prefer (or to avoid) as well as lifestyle recommendations to reduce cancer risk are becoming established6,8,9,15, the goal now is to identify and, possibly, standardize well tolerated, periodic dietary regimens with low or no side effects and evaluate their cancer-preventive efficacy in clinical studies.

As discussed earlier, FMD cycles cause downregulation of IGF1 and glucose and upregulation of IGFBP1 and ketone bodies, which are changes similar to those caused by fasting itself and are biomarkers of the fasting response22. When C57Bl/6 mice (which spontaneously develop tumours, primarily lymphomas, as they age) were fed such an FMD for 4 days twice a month starting at middle age and an ad libitum diet in the period between FMD cycles, the incidence of neoplasms was reduced from approximately 70% in mice on the control diet to approximately 40% in mice in the FMD group (an overall 43% reduction)22. In addition, the FMD postponed by over 3 months the occurrence of neoplasm related deaths, and the number of animals with multiple abnormal lesions was more than threefold higher in the control group than in the FMD mice, indicating that many tumours in the FMD mice were less aggressive or benign.

A previous study of alternate-day fasting, which was performed in middle-aged mice for a total of 4 months, also found that fasting reduced the incidence of lymphoma, bringing it from 33% (for control mice) to 0% (in fasted animals)145, although because of the short duration of the study it is unknown whether this fasting regimen prevented or simply delayed the tumour onset. Furthermore, alternate-day fasting imposes 15 days per month of complete water-only fasting, whereas in the FMD experiment described above mice were placed on a diet that provided a limited amount of food for only 8 days per month. In humans, 3 cycles of a 5-day FMD once a month were shown to reduce abdominal obesity and markers of inflammation as well as IGF1 and glucose levels in subjects with elevated levels of these markers62, indicating that periodic use of an FMD could potentially have preventive effects for obesity-related or inflammation-related, but also other, cancers in humans, as it has been shown for mice22.

Therefore, the promising results of preclinical studies combined with the clinical data on the effect of an FMD on risk factors for ageing-associated diseases, including cancer62, lend support to future randomized studies of FMDs as a possibly effective tool to prevent cancer, as well as other ageing-associated chronic conditions, in humans.

Clinical Applicability in Oncology

Four feasibility studies of fasting and FMDs in patients undergoing chemotherapy have been published as of today52,53,58,61. In a case series of 10 patients diagnosed with various types of cancer, including breast, prostate, ovarian, uterus, lung and oesophageal cancer, who voluntarily fasted for up to 140hours before and/or up to 56hours following chemotherapy, no major side effects caused by fasting itself other than hunger and lightheadedness were reported58. Those patients (six) who underwent chemotherapy with and without fasting reported a significant reduction in fatigue, weakness and gastrointestinal adverse events while fasting. In addition, in those patients in which cancer progression could be assessed, fasting did not prevent chemotherapy-induced reductions in tumour volume or in tumour markers. In another study, 13 women with HER2 (also known as ERBB2) negative, stage II/III breast cancer receiving neo-adjuvant taxotere, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy were randomized to fast (water only) 24hours before and after beginning chemotherapy or to nutrition according to standard guidelines52.

Short-term fasting was well tolerated and reduced the drop in mean erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts 7 days after chemotherapy. Interestingly, in this study, the levels of γ-H2AX (a marker of DNA damage) were increased 30minutes after chemotherapy in leukocytes from non-fasted patients but not in patients who had fasted. In a dose escalation of fasting in patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy, 20 patients (who were primarily treated for either urothelial, ovarian or breast cancer) were randomized to fast for 24, 48 or 72hours (divided as 48hours before chemotherapy and 24hours after chemotherapy)53. Feasibility criteria (defined as three or more out of six subjects in each cohort consuming≤200kcal per day during the fast period without excess toxicity) were met. Fasting-related toxicities were always grade 2 or below, the most common being fatigue, headache and dizziness. As in the previous study, reduced DNA damage (as detected by comet assay) in leukocytes from subjects who fasted for at least 48hours (as compared with subjects who fasted for only 24hours) could also be detected in this small trial. In addition, a nonsignificant trend towards less grade 3 or grade 4 neutropenia in patients who fasted for 48 and 72hours versus those who fasted for only 24hours was also documented.

Very recently, a randomized crossover clinical trial was conducted assessing the effects of an FMD on quality of life and side effects of chemotherapy in a total of 34 patients with breast or ovarian cancer61. The FMD consisted of a daily caloric intake of<400kcal, primarily by juices and broths, starting 36–48hours before the beginning of chemotherapy and lasting until 24hours after the end of chemotherapy. In this study, the FMD prevented the chemotherapy induced reduction in quality of life and it also reduced fatigue. Again, no serious adverse events of the FMD were reported. Several other clinical trials of FMDs in combination with chemotherapy or with other types of active treatments are currently ongoing at US and European hospitals, primarily in patients who are diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer63,65–68. These are either one-arm clinical studies to assess FMD safety and feasibility or randomized clinical studies focusing either on the effect of the FMD on the toxicity of chemotherapy or on the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy itself. Altogether, these studies have now enrolled over 300 patients, and their first results are expected to become available in 2019.

cancer and fasting el paso tx.

Challenges in The Clinic

The study of periodic fasting or of FMDs in oncology is not devoid of concerns, particularly in relation to the possibility that this type of dietary regimen could precipitate malnutrition, sarcopenia, and cachexia in predisposed or frail patients (for example, patients who develop anorexia as a consequence of chemotherapy)18,19. However, no instances of severe (above grade 3) weight loss or of malnutrition were reported in the clinical studies of fasting in combination with chemotherapy published as of now, and those patients who did experience a weight loss during fasting typically recovered their weight before the subsequent cycle without detectable harm. Nevertheless, we recommend that periodic anorexia and nutritional status assessments using gold-standard approaches18,19,146–150 should be an integral part of these studies and that any ensuing nutritional impairment in patients undergoing fasting and/or FMDs is rapidly corrected.

Conclusions

Periodic fasting or FMDs consistently show powerful anticancer effects in mouse cancer models including the ability to potentiate chemoradiotherapy and TKIs and to trigger anticancer immunity. FMD cycles are more feasible than chronic dietary regimens because they allow patients to consume food regularly during the FMD, maintain a normal diet between cycles and do not result in severe weight loss and possibly detrimental effects on the immune and endocrine systems. Notably, as standalone therapies, periodic fasting or FMD cycles would probably show limited efficacy against established tumors. In fact, in mice, fasting or FMDs affect the progression of a number of cancers similarly to chemotherapy, but alone, they rarely match the effect obtained in combination with cancer drugs which can result in cancer-free survival11,59. Thus, we propose that it is the combination of periodic FMD cycles with standard treatments that holds the highest potential to promote cancer-free survival in patients, as suggested by the mouse models11,59 (Fig. 3).

This combination may be particularly potent for several reasons: first, cancer drugs and other therapies can be effective, but a portion of patients do not respond because cancer cells adopt alternative metabolic strategies leading to survival. These alternative metabolic modes are much more difficult to sustain under fasting or FMD conditions because of the deficiencies or changes in glucose, certain amino acids, hormones, and growth factors, as well as in other unknown pathways leading to cell death. Second, fasting or FMDs can prevent or reduce resistance acquisition. Third, fasting or FMDs protect normal cells and organs from the side effects caused by a wide variety of cancer drugs. On the basis of preclinical and clinical evidence of feasibility, safety and efficacy (at reducing IGF1, visceral fat and cardiovascular risk factors), FMDs also appear as a viable dietary approach to be studied in cancer prevention. An important future challenge will be to identify those tumours that are the best candidates to benefit from fasting or FMDs. Even in cancer types that are apparently less responsive to fasting or FMDs, it may still be possible to identify the mechanisms of resistance and to intervene with drugs able to revert that resistance. Conversely, more caution should be adopted with other types of diets, especially if high in calories, as they could lead to exacerbated and not inhibited growth of certain cancers. For example, the KD increases growth of a melanoma model with mutated BRAF in mice123, and it was also reported to accelerate disease progression in a mouse AML model72.

Furthermore, it is essential to apply FMDs with an understanding of the mechanisms of action, since their potency if applied incorrectly could generate negative effects. For example, when rats were fasted and treated with a potent carcinogen before refeeding, this resulted in the growth of aberrant foci in liver, colon and rectum when compared with non-fasted rats151,152. Although the mechanisms involved in this effect are not understood, and these foci may have not resulted in tumours, these studies suggest that a minimum period of 24–48hours between the chemotherapy treatment and the return to the normal diet is important to avoid combining the regrowth signals present during the refeeding after fasting with high levels of toxic drugs such as chemotherapy. The clinical studies of fasting or FMD in patients undergoing chemotherapy support its feasibility and overall safety52,53,58,61. In a small-size randomized trial that enrolled 34 patients, an FMD helped patients maintain their quality of life during chemotherapy and reduced fatigue61. In addition, preliminary data suggest the potential of fasting or FMDs to reduce chemotherapy induced DNA damage in healthy cells in patients52,53.

Ongoing clinical studies of FMDs in patients with cancer63,65–68 will provide more solid answers as to whether prescribing periodic FMDs in combination with conventional anticancer agents helps improve tolerability and activity of the latter. It is important to consider that FMDs will not be effective in reducing the side effects of cancer treatments in all patients and neither will they work to improve the efficacy of all therapies, but they have great potential to do so at least for a portion and possibly for a major portion of patients and drugs. Frail or malnourished patients or patients at risk of malnutrition should not be enrolled in clinical studies of fasting or FMDs, and patient nutritional status and anorexia should be carefully monitored throughout clinical trials. An appropriate intake of proteins, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals combined, where possible, with light and/or moderate physical activity aimed at increasing muscle mass should be applied between fasting or FMD cycles in order for the patients to maintain a healthy lean body mass18,19. This multimodal dietary approach will maximize the benefits of fasting or FMDs while at the same time protecting patients from malnutrition.

References:

Low-Carb Diet Tied to Heart Rhythm Disorder

Low-Carb Diet Tied to Heart Rhythm Disorder

Individuals getting a very low percentage of their daily calories from carbohydrates, such as fruits, grains, and starchy vegetables, are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation, or AFib. This health issue is one of the most prevalent heart rhythm disorders, according to a new research study being presented at the American College of Cardiology’s 68th Annual Scientific Session.

The research study examined the health records of almost 14,000 people spanning two or more decades. Researchers brought data from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, or ARIC, a research study controlled by the National Institutes of Health which was conducted from 1985 to 2016. Of almost 1,900 participants that were diagnosed through a mean of 22 years of follow-up, a majority of them were identified with AFib by researchers. The details of the research study are described below.

AFib and Carbohydrates

Research study participants were requested to report the everyday consumption of 66 distinct food items in a poll. The researchers utilized this information to gauge the percentage of calories which came from carbohydrates from each participant’s calorie intake. Carbohydrates were contained in roughly half of the daily calories consumed by the participants.

Researchers subsequently separated the participants into three separate groups categorized by low, moderate, and high carbohydrate intake, representing diets where carbohydrates consisted less than 44.8 percent of their daily calories, followed by 44.8 to 52.4 percent, and finally where carbohydrates consisted more than 52.4 percent of their daily calories, respectively.

Participants who reporting reduced carbohydrate consumption were the ones who had the highest probability of developing AFib, according to researchers. As the statistics of the research study later demonstrated, these participants were also 18 percent more likely to come up with AFib compared to those with moderate carbohydrate intake and 16 percent more likely to come up with AFib compared to those with high carbohydrate ingestion. Some diets can also help decrease the risk of heart rhythm disorders.

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The type of carbohydrates you eat can make a huge difference in your overall health and wellness. Complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates and these release a steady release of sugar, or glucose, into the blood stream. Complex carbohydrates, often referred to as “starchy” foods, include legumes, starchy vegetables, whole grain, and fiber. According to the research study in the following article, consuming low amounts of carbohydrates, which often includes fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can contribute to cardiovascular diseases, such as atrial fibrillation. When it comes to carbohydrates, it’s important to consume this essential macronutrient for overall health and wellness.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Nutrition for AFib

Restricting carbohydrates has become a popular weight loss plan. Many diets, such as the Paleo and the ketogenic diet, highlight the consumption of proteins. According to Xiaodong Zhuang, MD, PhD, cardiologist and the research study’s lead author, “The long-term impact of carbohydrate restriction remains controversial, particularly with respect to its own influence on cardiovascular disease.” “Considering the possible effects on arrhythmia, our research study indicates that this popular weight control system ought to be recommended carefully,” he stated in a statement published by the ACC.

The findings complement previous research studies, a number of which have correlated both polyunsaturated and high-carbohydrate diets with a greater probability of death. While previous research studies indicated that this part of the diet affected the outcome measures found, the research study itself didn’t determine these findings. “Low carbohydrate diets have been associated with greater risk of developing AFib irrespective of the type of fat or protein utilized to substitute the carbohydrate,” Zhuang said.

“Several possible mechanisms could explain why limiting carbohydrates may contribute to AFib,” Zhuang said. One is that individuals eating a low-carbohydrate diet often consume fewer fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Without these foods, individuals may experience more widespread inflammation, which has been connected with AFib. According to the research study, another potential explanation is that eating more fat and protein instead of carbohydrate-rich foods can result in oxidative stress, which has also been connected to AFib. The effect may be associated with an increased risk of other types of cardiovascular disease.

The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, eliminates the consumption of processed foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. While this diet program doesn’t focus on weight loss, the emphasis of the longevity diet plan is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help activate stem cell-based renewal, reduce abdominal fat, and prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, as well as build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease.

the-longevity-diet-book-new.png

The fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day, which serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat and easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out if this dietary program is right for you.

Furthermore, the research study didn’t monitor participants with asymptomatic AFib, or people who had AFib but were never admitted to a hospital. It didn’t investigate subtypes of AFib, therefore it’s unknown if patients were far more likely to have episodes of persistent or arrhythmia AFib. Zhuang reported that the research study didn’t show cause and effect. A randomized trial could be required to validate the connection between AFib and carbohydrate intake to evaluate the result in a more diverse population.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

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For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

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Stop Eating This and Stop the Chronic Pain

Stop Eating This and Stop the Chronic Pain

Do you sometimes feel like your chronic pain becomes worse after eating certain foods? As a matter of fact, research studies have demonstrated that eating several types of foods can trigger an inflammatory response in the human body. And we all know that inflammation can be one of the primary causes for your chronic pain flare-ups. Before we discuss the foods that can cause inflammation and the foods that can fight against inflammation, let’s discuss what is inflammation and how you can measure inflammation.

What is Inflammation?

Inflammation is the immune system’s natural defense mechanism. It functions by protecting the human body from injury, illness, and infection. Inflammation helps to maintain overall health and wellness. Allergic reactions can also result in inflammation. When you’re injured or you have an infection, you can see symptoms of inflammation: or swollen, red, and hot spots. However, inflammation may occur seemingly without a cause. The ideal way to diagnose inflammation is to measure specific biomarkers through blood tests.

The C-reactive protein, or CRP, a substance produced by the liver, is one of the best biomarkers of inflammation. CRP levels increase as inflammation increases, therefore, you can know a lot about what’s happening inside your own body by looking at your CRP levels. According to the American Heart Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a CRP concentration of under 1.0 mg/L suggests a low risk for heart issues; between 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L suggests an average risk for heart issues; and over 3.0 mg/L suggests a high risk for heart issues. Substantial levels of CRP (greater than 10 mg/L) may also suggest a risk of developing other health issues.

Other biomarkers like activated monocytes, cytokines, chemokines, various adhesion molecules, adiponectin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid alpha, are other biomarkers which can be measured through blood tests to diagnose inflammation. Inflammatory responses consist of sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production.

White blood cells play an important part in the human body’s immune system. Every time a bacteria or virus enters the bloodstream, the white blood cells, or leukocytes, recognize and destroy the foreign invaders. You might believe that an increased white blood cell count may be beneficial since white blood cells fight infection, however, this may not necessarily be the case. An increased white blood cell count may indicate the presence of another health issue, although a large white blood cell count is not a problem itself.

Foods that Cause Inflammation

Not surprisingly, the same types of foods which can cause inflammation are also generally considered to be bad for our health, such as refined carbohydrates, and sodas as well as red meat, and processed meats. Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism which has been associated with an increased risk for chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and heart disease, among other health issues.

Unhealthy foods also contribute to weight gain, which is itself a risk factor for inflammation. In several research studies, even after researchers took obesity into account, the connection between inflammation and these foods remained, which suggests that weight gain is not a cause of inflammation. Some foods have an increased effect on inflammation and increased caloric consumption.

Foods that can cause inflammation include:

  • Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and pastries
  • French fries and other fried foods
  • Sodas and other sugar-sweetened drinks
  • Red meat like burgers and steaks as well as processed meat like hot dogs and sausage
  • Margarine, shortening, and lard

Foods that Fight Against Inflammation

Alternatively, there are foods that fight against inflammation, and with it, chronic disease. Certain fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, apples, and leafy greens, are high in polyphenols and antioxidants, which are components that may have anti-inflammatory effects. Research studies also have associated nuts with reduced biomarkers of inflammation and a decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Coffee may protect against inflammation, as well. Choose anti-inflammatory foods and you could improve your overall health and wellness. Choose inflammatory foods and you might increase the risk of inflammation and chronic pain.

Foods that can fight against inflammation include:

  • Tomatoes
  • Olive oil
  • Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, kale, and collards
  • Nuts like almonds and walnuts
  • Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines
  • Fruits like strawberries, blueberries, cherries, and oranges
Dr Jimenez White Coat

Healthcare professionals are learning that one of the greatest ways to reduce inflammation is found. not in the medicine cabinet, but in the refrigerator. An anti-inflammatory diet can ultimately help reduce the human body’s inflammatory response. The immune system triggers inflammation to protect the human body from injury, illness, and infection. But if inflammation continues, it can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. Research studies have demonstrated that certain food can influence the effects of inflammation in the human body.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Anti-Inflammatory Diets

To reduce inflammation, focus on following an overall healthier diet. If you’re looking for an anti-inflammatory diet, consider following the Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish, and oils. The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, also eliminates foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. Fasting, or caloric restriction, has long been known to decrease oxidative stress and slow down the mechanisms of aging in various organisms.

the-longevity-diet-book-new.png

And if fasting is not for you, Dr. Valter Longo’s longevity diet plan also includes the fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, which allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness as well as to help reduce inflammation and chronic pain.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, Dr. Valter Longo offers the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled to serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program consists of ready-to-eat and easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. However, before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a doctor to find out which chronic pain treatment is right for you.

ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet Banner

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In addition to reducing inflammation, a more natural, less processed diet can have noticeable effects on your physical and emotional health. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Green Call Now Button H .png

Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

Fasting and Chronic Pain

Fasting and Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is a common health issue which affects many people in the United States. While several medical conditions, such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome, can cause chronic pain, it may also develop due to a variety of other health issues. Research studies have found that widespread inflammation is the leading cause of chronic pain. Inflammation is a natural defense mechanism to injury, illness, or infection. But, if the inflammatory process continues for too long, it can become problematic.

Inflammation signals the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue as well as to protect itself against bacteria and viruses. As mentioned above, however, chronic inflammation can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. Healthy lifestyle modifications can help manage chronic pain, but first, let’s understand the common causes of chronic pain.

What is Acute Inflammation?

Acute inflammation, by way of instance, occurs following an injury or something as simple as a sore throat. It is a natural response with adverse effects, meaning it works locally in the region where the health issue is found. The common signs of acute inflammation include swelling, redness, warmth, pain and loss of function, as stated by the National Library of Medicine. When acute inflammation develops, the blood vessels dilate causing blood flow to increase, and white blood cells in the injured region promote recovery.

During severe inflammation, compounds called cytokines are released by the damaged tissue. The cytokines act as “emergency signals” which bring on the human body’s own immune cells, as well as hormones and numerous nutrients to repair the health issue. Additionally, hormone-like substances, known as prostaglandins, cause blood clots to heal damaged tissue, and these may also trigger fever and pain as part of the inflammatory procedure. As the damage or injury recovers, the inflammation subsides.

What is Chronic Inflammation?

Unlike acute inflammation, chronic inflammation has long-term effects. Chronic inflammation, also known as persistent inflammation, produces low-levels of inflammation throughout the human body, as demonstrated by an increase in immune system markers located in blood and cell tissues. Chronic inflammation may also cause the progression of various diseases and conditions. Elevated levels of inflammation may sometimes trigger even if there is no injury, illness, or infection, which may also cause the immune system to react.

As a result, the human body’s immune system could begin attacking healthy cells, tissues, or organs. Researchers are still trying to understand the consequences of chronic inflammation in the human body and the mechanisms involved in this natural defense process. By way of instance, chronic inflammation has been associated with a variety of health issues, such as heart disease, and stroke.

One theory suggests that when inflammation remains in the blood vessels, it can encourage the accumulation of plaque. According to the American Heart Association, or the AHA, if the immune system identifies plaque as a foreign invader, the white blood cells can attempt to wall off the plaque found in the blood flowing through the arteries. This can create a blood clot which may block the blood flow to the heart or brain, causing it to become unstable and rupture. Cancer is another health issue associated with chronic inflammation. Furthermore, according to the National Cancer Institute, DNA damage can also be caused by chronic inflammation.

Persistent, low-grade inflammation frequently doesn’t have any symptoms, but healthcare professionals can check for a C-reactive protein, or CRP, known as lipoic acid, a marker for inflammation found in the blood. Elevated levels of CRP are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevated CRP levels may be found in chronic disorders like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

In the case of other chronic conditions, such as fibromyalgia, the nervous system over-reacts to specific stimulation, however, it’s inflammation which causes chronic pain symptoms. Subjectively, it’s almost impossible to tell the difference between the chronic pain caused by an oversensitive nervous system and the chronic pain caused by widespread inflammation. Apart from searching for clues in the bloodstream, a person’s nutrition, lifestyle habits, and environmental exposures, can also promote chronic inflammation.

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Inflammation is the immune system’s natural defense mechanism against injury, illness, or infection. While this inflammatory response can help heal and repair tissues, chronic, widespread inflammation can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. A balanced nutrition, including a variety of diets and fasting, can help reduce inflammation. Fasting, also known as caloric restriction, promotes cell apoptosis and mitochondrial recovery. The fasting mimicking diet, which is a part of the longevity diet plan, is a dietary program which “tricks” the human body into a fasting state to experience the benefits of traditional fasting. Before following any of the diets described in this article, make sure to consult a doctor.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

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Nutrition, Diets, Fasting and Chronic Pain

Anti-inflammatory diets mainly consist of eating fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, and fats. The Mediterranean diet plan, by way of instance, is an anti-inflammatory diet which promotes eating moderate amounts of nuts, ingesting very little meat, and drinking wine. Anti-inflammatory food parts, such as omega-3 fatty acids, protect the human body against the damage brought on by inflammation.

An anti-inflammatory diet also involves staying away from foods which could promote inflammation. It is ideal to decrease the amount of foods you eat which are high in trans and saturated fats, such as meats. Additionally, an anti-inflammatory diet limits the consumption of refined carbohydrates and foods, such as bread and rice. These also promote cutting back on the utilization of margarine and oils that are packed with omega-6 fatty acids, such as sunflower, safflower and corn oils.

Fasting, or caloric restriction, has long been known to decrease oxidative stress and slow down the mechanisms of aging in various organisms. The effects of fasting involve programmed cell death, or apoptosis, transcription, mobile energy efficiency, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant mechanisms, and circadian rhythm. Fasting also contributes to mitochondrial autophagy, known as mitophagy, where genes in the mitochondria are stimulated to undergo apoptosis, which promotes mitochondrial recovery.

Intermittent fasting can help you fight inflammation, improve digestion, and boost your longevity. The human body is designed to be able to survive for extended periods of time without food. Research studies have demonstrated that intermittent fasting can have positive changes in the overall composition of your gut microbiota. Moreover, intermittent fasting can reduce insulin resistance while increasing the immune system response. Finally, intermittent fasting can promote the production of a substance, known as β-hydroxybutyrate, that blocks a portion of the immune system involved in inflammatory ailments as well as substantially reducing the production of inflammatory markers, such as cytokines and the C-reactive protein, or CRP, previously mentioned above.

The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, eliminates the consumption of processed foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. This unique dietary program, unlike most traditional diets, doesn’t promote weight loss. Although you may experience weight reduction, the emphasis of this unique dietary program is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help activate stem cell-based renewal, reduce abdominal fat, and prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, as well as build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cancer.

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The fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day, that serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out which chronic pain treatment is right for you.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

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For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

What is the Longevity Diet Plan?

What is the Longevity Diet Plan?

Adhering to a specific diet to maintain proper nutrition can sometimes make eating stressful. Natural lifestyle modifications are the key to changing your eating habits and this can help you live a longer, healthier life. The Longevity Diet Plan, created by Dr. Valter Longo, is a selection of practical eating guidelines which focuses on changing your eating patterns to achieve overall health and wellness.

The Rules of The Longevity Diet Plan

By merely following the nutritional tips below, you can overhaul your current diet plan and start eating healthier without all the stress of a traditional diet. The Longevity Diet Plan eliminates the consumption of processed foods that can cause a variety of health issues and boosts the consumption of nutrients that promote longevity. This unique dietary program shares the results of approximately 25 years of research studies all on a simple solution which can help people experience overall well-being through proper nutrition.

However, unlike most traditional diets, the Longevity Diet Plan doesn’t promote weight loss. Although you may experience weight reduction, the emphasis of this unique dietary program is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help you activate stem cell-based renewal, lose weight and reduce abdominal fat, prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cancer, as well as extend longevity. Below, we will summarize the 8 most common nutritional tips of the Longevity Diet Plan which can ultimately help make your life longer and healthier.

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The Longevity Diet Plan is a unique dietary program designed by Dr. Valter Longo to promote overall health, wellness, and longevity. Through simple lifestyle modifications, people can change their eating habits and take advantage of the many health benefits of this dietary program. By following a pescatarian diet and following the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet, among the other nutritional tips described below, people can live longer and healthier lives. Traditional diets can often be difficult and stressful to follow, however, the Longevity Diet Plan is a practical and unique dietary program which can be suitable for many people.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

8 Nutritional Tips of the Longevity Diet Plan

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Follow a Pescatarian Diet

As a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, follow a pescatarian diet, which is almost 100 percent plant and fish-based. Also, make sure to limit fish consumption to two or three servings every week, avoiding fish with higher mercury content, such as tuna, swordfish, mackerel, and halibut. If you’re over 65 and you begin to experience reduced muscle mass, strength, and fat, add more fish into your diet alongside other animal-based foods, including eggs and specific cheeses, such as feta or pecorino, and yogurt made from goat’s milk.

Don’t Eat Too Much Protein

According to the Longevity Diet Plan, we should eat 0.31 to 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body fat every day. If you weigh 130lbs, you should eat about 40 to 47 grams of protein per day, or an equivalent of 1.5 filets of salmon, 1 cup of chickpeas or 2 1/2 cups of lentils, of which 30 grams should be consumed in one meal. If you weigh 200 to 220lbs, you should eat about 60 to 70 grams of protein per day, or an equivalent of two fillets of salmon, 3 1/2 cups of lentils or 1 1/2 cups of chickpeas. Protein consumption should be increased after age 65. For the majority of us, a 10 to 20 percent increase, or 5 to 10 grams more each day, is enough. Finally, the Longevity Diet is free of animal proteins like red meat, white meat, and poultry, with the exception of animal proteins in fish. This unique dietary program instead is comparatively high in vegetable proteins like legumes and nuts to optimize health and wellness.

Increase Good Fats and Complex Carbohydrates

As a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, you should eat higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in salmon, almonds, walnuts, and olive oil, while you should eat lower amounts of saturated, hydrogenated, and trans fats. Likewise, as a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, you should also eat complex carbohydrates, such as those found in whole wheat bread, legumes, and vegetables. Make sure to limit eating pasta, rice, bread, fruit, and fruit juices, which can be converted to sugars by the time they reach your gut.

Take Dietary Supplements

The human body needs proteins, essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6, vitamins, minerals, and even sugars to function correctly. Whenever your intake of certain nutrients becomes too low, the repair, replacement, and defense methods of the human body can slow down or stop, allowing fungi, bacteria, and viruses to cause damage which can lead to a variety of health issues. Take vitamin and mineral dietary supplements, especially for omega-3, as recommended by your healthcare professional.

Eat Various Foods from your Ancestry

To take in all of the necessary nutrients you need, you have to eat a wide variety of foods, but it’s best to choose foods that were common on your parents’, grandparents’, and great-grandparents’ table. By way of instance, in many northern European countries where milk has been generally consumed, lactose intolerance is relatively rare, whereas lactose intolerance is quite common in southern European and Asian countries, where milk was not historically part of the conventional diet of adults. If a person of Japanese ancestry residing in the United States suddenly decides to begin drinking milk, which was probably rarely served in their grandparents’ dining table, they will probably start feeling sick. The most common problems in these cases are intolerances or autoimmunities, such as the response to gluten-rich foods like bread and pasta seen in people with celiac disease. Although further evidence is needed, it is possible that food intolerances could be related to many autoimmune disorders, including diabetes, colitis, and Crohn’s disease.

Eat Two Meals a Day and a Snack

According to the Longevity Diet Plan, it is ideal to eat breakfast and one major meal plus a nourishing low-calorie, low-sugar snack every day. While for some people it may be recommended to eat three meals and a snack every day. Many nutritional guidelines recommend that we should eat five to six meals every day. When people are advised to eat frequently, it can often become difficult for them to regulate their calorie intake. Over the last twenty years, approximately 70 percent of the population in the United States is considered to be overweight or obese. It’s much more difficult to overeat on the Longevity Diet Plan if you eat only two and a half meals every day. It would take massive portions of legumes, vegetables, and fish to reach the amount that would lead to weight gain. The high nourishment of the meals, plus the amount of the meal, sends a signal to your stomach and your brain that you have had enough food. This one major meal system may sometimes have to be broken down into two meals to avoid digestion issues. Adults and older people prone to weight loss should eat three meals a day. For people trying to lose weight as well as for people who are overweight or obese, the best nutritional advice would be to eat breakfast daily; have dinner or lunch, but not both, and substitute for the missed meal with one snack containing fewer than 100 calories and no more than 3 to 5 g of sugar. Which meal you skip depends upon your lifestyle, however, it’s not recommended to skip breakfast due to its adverse health issues. The benefit of skipping lunch is more free time and energy. But, there is a drawback for eating a large dinner, particularly for people who suffer from acid reflux or sleeping problems. The drawback for skipping dinner, however, is that it may eliminate the social meal of their day.

Eat Within a 12-Hour Window Every Day

Another common eating habit adopted by many centenarians is time-restricted eating or limiting all meals and snacks within a 12-hour window every day. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated in both human and animal research studies. Generally, you would eat breakfast at 8 a.m. and then eat dinner by 8 p.m.. A briefer eating window of ten hours or less can be even better for weight loss, but it’s considerably harder to maintain and it might increase the risk of developing side effects, such as gallstones and even potentially increasing the chance of developing cardiovascular disease. You should not eat three to four hours before sleeping.

Follow the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet

Healthy people under the age of 65 should follow the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet, 5-day meal program at least twice every year. The FMD is one of the key principles promoted by the Longevity Diet Plan. The fasting mimicking diet offers the same health benefits of fasting without actually fasting. By eating 800 to 1,100 calories in precise quantities and combinations of foods which have been individually packed and labeled for each day, you can “trick” the human body into a fasting state. Through various research studies, Dr. Valter Longo discovered that by depriving the body of food in this manner, our cells begin breaking down and regenerating our internal tissues, through a process known as autophagy, killing and replacing, or regenerating, damaged cells. Additionally, fasting can reverse various health issues, destroy cancer cells and significantly reduce the possibility of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

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With the Longevity Diet Plan presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, you’ll eat better, feel better and, although it’s not designed as a weight loss plan, you may even shed a few pounds. You’re not going to have to consider complex food rules and make difficult choices with this unique dietary program. Once you get the hang of these lifestyle modifications, you’ll be able to improve your overall health and wellness as well as your longevity. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine topics. To further discuss the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Green Call Now Button H .png

Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

Fasting Mimicking Diet Explained

Fasting Mimicking Diet Explained

Understanding the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet

Fasting is associated with numerous health benefits; from weight loss to longevity. There are many different types of fasting methods, such as intermittent fasting. The fasting mimicking diet allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to promote well-being.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day and it serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. The products are scientifically formulated and great tasting. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out if the FMD is right for you. The purpose of the research study below is to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of fasting in the FMD.

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Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions.

Introduction

In humans, fasting is achieved by ingesting no or minimal amounts of food and caloric beverages for periods that typically range from 12 hours to three weeks. Many religious groups incorporate periods of fasting into their rituals including Muslims who fast from dawn until dusk during the month of Ramadan, and Christians, Jews, Buddhists and Hindus who traditionally fast on designated days of the week or calendar year. In many clinics, patients are now monitored by physicians while undergoing water only or very low calorie (less than 200 kcal/day) fasting periods lasting from 1 week or longer for weight management, and for disease prevention and treatment. Fasting is distinct from caloric restriction (CR) in which the daily caloric intake is reduced chronically by 20–40%, but meal frequency is maintained. Starvation is instead a chronic nutritional insufficiency that is commonly used as a substitute for the word fasting, particularly in lower eukaryotes, but that is also used to define extreme forms of fasting, which can result in degeneration and death. We now know that fasting results in ketogenesis, promotes potent changes in metabolic pathways and cellular processes such as stress resistance, lipolysis and autophagy, and can have medical applications that in some cases are as effective as those of approved drugs such as the dampening of seizures and seizure-associated brain damage and the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis (Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Hartman et al., 2012; Muller et al., 2001). As detailed in the remainder of this article, findings from well-controlled investigations in experimental animals, and emerging findings from human studies, indicate that different forms of fasting may provide effective strategies to reduce weight, delay aging, and optimize health. Here we review the fascinating and potent effects of different forms of fasting including intermittent fasting (IF, including alternate day fasting, or twice weekly fasting, for example) and periodic fasting (PF) lasting several days or longer every 2 or more weeks. We focus on fasting and minimize the discussion of CR, a topic reviewed elsewhere (Fontana et al., 2010; Masoro, 2005).

Lessons from Simple Organisms

The remarkable effects of the typical 20–40% CR on aging and diseases in mice and rats are often viewed as responses evolved in mammals to adapt to periods of limited availability of food (Fontana and Klein, 2007; Fontana et al., 2010; Masoro, 2005; Weindruch and Walford, 1988). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the protective effects of CR have likely evolved billions of years earlier in prokaryotes attempting to survive in an environment largely or completely devoid of energy sources while avoiding age-dependent damage that could compromise fitness. In fact, E. coli switched from a nutrient rich broth to a calorie-free medium survive 4 times longer, an effect reversed by the addition of various nutrients but not acetate, a carbon source associated with starvation conditions (Figure 1A) (Gonidakis et al., 2010). The effect of rich medium but not acetate in reducing longevity raises the possibility that a ketone body-like carbon source such as acetate may be part of an “alternate metabolic program” that evolved billions of years ago in microorganisms and that now allows mammals to survive during periods of food deprivation by obtaining much of the energy by catabolizing fatty acids and ketone bodies including acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (Cahill, 2006).

In the yeast S. cerevisiae, switching cells from standard growth medium to water also causes a consistent 2-fold chronological lifespan extension as well as a major increase in the resistance to multiple stresses (Figure 1B) (Longo et al., 1997; Longo et al., 2012). The mechanisms of food deprivation-dependent lifespan extension involve the down-regulation of the amino acid response Tor-S6K (Sch9) pathway as well as of the glucose responsive Ras-adenylate cyclase-PKA pathway resulting in the activation of the serine/threonine kinase Rim15, a key enzyme coordinating the protective responses (Fontana et al., 2010). The inactivation of Tor-S6K, Ras-AC-PKA and activation of Rim15 result in increased transcription of genes including superoxide dismutases and heat shock proteins controlled by stress responsive transcription factors Msn2, Msn4 and Gis1, required for the majority of the protective effects caused by food deprivation (Wei et al., 2008). Notably, when switched to food deprivation conditions, both bacteria and yeast enter a hypometabolic mode that allows them to minimize the use of reserve carbon sources and can also accumulate high levels of the ketone body-like acetic acid, analogously to mammals.

Another major model organism in which fasting extends lifespan is the nematode C. elegans. Food deprivation conditions achieved by feeding worms little or no bacteria, lead to a major increase in lifespan (Figure 1C) (Kaeberlein et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2006), which requires AMPK as well as the stress resistance transcription factor DAF-16, similarly to the role of transcription factors Msn2/4 and Gis1 in yeast and FOXOs in flies and mammals (Greer et al., 2007). Intermittent food deprivation also extends lifespan in C. elegans by a mechanism involving the small GTPase RHEB-1 (Honjoh et al., 2009).

In flies, most studies indicate that intermittent food deprivation does not affect lifespan (Grandison et al., 2009). However, food reduction or food dilution have been consistently shown to extend Drosophila longevity (Piper and Partridge, 2007) suggesting that flies can benefit from dietary restriction but may be sensitive to even short starvation periods.

Together these results indicate that food deprivation can result in pro-longevity effects in a wide variety of organisms, but also underline that different organisms have different responses to fasting.

Adaptive Responses to Fasting in Mammals

In most mammals, the liver serves as the main reservoir of glucose, which is stored in the form of glycogen. In humans, depending upon their level of physical activity, 12 to 24 hours of fasting typically results in a 20% or greater decrease in serum glucose and depletion of the hepatic glycogen, accompanied by a switch to a metabolic mode in which non-hepatic glucose, fat-derived ketone bodies and free fatty acids are used as energy sources (Figures 2 and 3). Whereas most tissues can utilize fatty acids for energy, during prolonged periods of fasting, the brain relies on the ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in addition to glucose for energy consumption (Figure 3B). Ketone bodies are produced in hepatocytes from the acetyl-CoA generated from β oxidation of fatty acids released into the bloodstream by adipocytes, and also by the conversion of ketogenic amino acids. After hepatic glycogen depletion, ketone bodies, fat-derived glycerol, and amino acids account for the gluconeogenesis-dependent generation of approximately 80 grams/day of glucose, which is mostly utilized by the brain. Depending on body weight and composition, the ketone bodies, free fatty acids and gluconeogenesis allow the majority of human beings to survive 30 or more days in the absence of any food and allow certain species, such as king penguins, to survive for over 5 months without food (Eichhorn et al., 2011) (Figure 3C). In humans, during prolonged fasting, the plasma levels of 3-β-hydroxybutyrate are about 5 times those of free fatty acids and acetoacetic acid (Figure 3A and 3B). The brain and other organs utilize ketone bodies in a process termed ketolysis, in which acetoacetic acid and 3-β- hydroxybutyrate are converted into acetoacetyl-CoA and then acetyl-CoA. These metabolic adaptations to fasting in mammals are reminiscent of those described earlier for E. coli and yeast, in which acetic acid accumulates in response to food deprivation (Gonidakis et al., 2010; Longo et al., 2012). In yeast, glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, but not glycerol which is also generated during fasting from the breakdown of fats, accelerate aging (Fabrizio et al., 2005; Wei et al., 2009). Thus, glycerol functions as a carbon source that does not activate the pro-aging nutrient signaling pathways but can be catabolized by cells. It will be important to understand how the different carbon sources generated during fasting affect cellular protection and aging. and to determine whether glycerol, specific ketone bodies or fatty acids can provide nourishment while reducing cellular aging in mammals, a possibility suggested by beneficial effects of a dietary ketone precursor in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (Kashiwaya et al., 2012). It will also be important to study, in various model organisms and humans, how high intake of specific types of fats (medium- vs. long- chain fatty acids, etc.) in substitution of carbohydrates and proteins influences gluconeogenesis and glucose levels as well as aging and diseases.

Fasting and the Brain

In mammals, severe CR/food deprivation results in a decrease in the size of most organs except the brain, and the testicles in male mice (Weindruch and Sohal, 1997). From an evolutionary perspective this implies that maintenance of a high level of cognitive function under conditions of food scarcity is of preeminent importance. Indeed, a highly conserved behavioral trait of all mammals is to be active when hungry and sedentary when satiated. In rodents, alternating days of normal feeding and fasting (IF) can enhance brain function as indicated by improvements in performance on behavioral tests of sensory and motor function (Singh et al., 2012) and learning and memory (Fontan-Lozano et al., 2007). The behavioral responses to IF are associated with increased synaptic plasticity and increased production of new neurons from neural stem cells (Lee et al., 2002).

Particularly interesting with regards to adaptive responses of the brain to limited food availability during human evolution is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The genes encoding BDNF and its receptor TrkB appeared in genomes relatively recently as they are present in vertebrates, but absent from worms, flies and lower species (Chao, 2000). The prominent roles of BDNF in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure in mammals is highlighted by the fact that the receptors for both BDNF and insulin are coupled to the highly conserved PI3 kinase – Akt, and MAP kinase signaling pathways (Figure 4). Studies of rats and mice have shown that running wheel exercise and IF increase BDNF expression in several regions of the brain, and that BDNF in part mediates exercise- and IF-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuronal resistance to injury and disease (see sections on fasting and neurodegeneration below). BDNF signaling in the brain may also mediate behavioral and metabolic responses to fasting and exercise including regulation of appetite, activity levels, peripheral glucose metabolism and autonomic control of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems (Mattson, 2012a, b; Rothman et al., 2012).

Hunger is an adaptive response to food deprivation that involves sensory, cognitive and neuroendocrine changes which motivate and enable food seeking behaviors. It has been proposed that hunger-related neuronal networks, neuropeptides and hormones play pivotal roles in the beneficial effects of energy restriction on aging and disease susceptibility. As evidence, when mice in which the hypothalamic ‘hunger peptide’ NPY is selectively ablated are maintained on a CR diet, the ability of CR to suppress tumor growth is abolished (Shi et al., 2012). The latter study further showed that the ability of CR to elevate circulating adiponectin levels was also compromised in NPY-deficient mice, suggesting a key role for the central hunger response in peripheral endocrine adaptations to energy restriction. Adiponectin levels increase dramatically in response to fasting; and data suggest roles for adiponectin in the beneficial effects of IF on the cardiovascular system (Wan et al., 2010). The hunger response may also improve immune function during aging as ghrelin-deficient mice exhibit accelerated thymic involution during aging, and treatment of middle age mice with ghrelin increases thymocyte numbers and improves the functional diversity of peripheral T cell subsets (Peng et al., 2012). In addition to its actions on the hypothalamus and peripheral endocrine cells, fasting may increase neuronal network activity in brain regions involved in cognition, resulting in the production of BDNF, enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved stress tolerance (Rothman et al., 2012). Thus, hunger may be a critical factor involved in widespread central and peripheral adaptive responses to the challenge of food deprivation for extended time periods.

Fasting, Aging, and Disease in Rodent Models

Different Fasting Methods and Aging

The major differences between IF and PF in mice are the length and the frequency of the fast cycles. IF cycles usually last 24 hours and are one to a few days apart, whereas PF cycles last 2 or more days and are at least 1 week apart, which is necessary for mice to regain their normal weight. One difference in the molecular changes caused by different fasting regimes is the effect on a variety of growth factors and metabolic markers, with IF causing more frequent but less pronounced changes than PF. It will be important to determine how the frequency of specific changes such as the lowering of IGF-1 and glucose affect cellular protection, diseases and longevity. The most extensively investigated IF method in animal studies of aging has been alternate day fasting (food is withdrawn for 24 hours on alternate days, with water provided ad libitum) (Varady and Hellerstein, 2007). The magnitude of the effects of alternate day fasting on longevity in rodents depends upon the species and age at regimen initiation, and can range from a negative effect to as much as an 80% lifespan extension (Arum et al., 2009; Goodrick et al., 1990). IF every other day extended the lifespan of rats more than fasting every 3rd or 4th day (Carlson and Hoelzel, 1946). Fasting for 24 hours twice weekly throughout adult life resulted in a significant increase in lifespan of black-hooded rats (Kendrick, 1973). In rats, the combination of alternate day fasting and treadmill exercise resulted in greater maintenance of muscle mass than did IF or exercise alone (Sakamoto and Grunewald, 1987). Interestingly, when rats were maintained for 10 weeks on a PF diet in which they fasted 3 consecutive days each week, they were less prone to hypoglycemia during 2 hours of strenuous swimming exercise as a result of their accumulation of larger intramuscular stores of glycogen and triglycerides (Favier and Koubi, 1988). Several major physiological responses to fasting are similar to those caused by regular aerobic exercise including increased insulin sensitivity and cellular stress resistance, reduced resting blood pressure and heart rate, and increased heart rate variability as a result of increased parasympathetic tone (Figure 2) (Anson et al., 2003; Mager et al., 2006; Wan et al., 2003). Emerging findings suggest that exercise and IF retard aging and some age-related diseases by shared mechanisms involving improved cellular stress adaptation (Stranahan and Mattson, 2012). However, in two different mouse genetic backgrounds, IF did not extend mean lifespan and even reduced lifespan when initiated at 10 months (Goodrick et al., 1990). When initiated at 1.5 months, IF either increased longevity or had no effect (Figure 1D) (Goodrick et al., 1990). These results in rodents point to conserved effects of fasting on lifespan, but also to the need for a much better understanding of the type of fasting that can maximize its longevity effects and the mechanisms responsible for the detrimental effects that may be counterbalancing its anti-aging effects. For example, one possibility is that fasting may be consistently protective in young and middle aged laboratory rodents that are either gaining or maintaining a body weight, but may be detrimental in older animals that, similarly to humans, begin to lose weight prior to their death. Notably, whereas bacteria, yeast and humans can survive for several weeks or more without nutrients, most strains of mice are unable to survive more than 3 days without food. The age-dependent weight loss may make this sensitivity to long periods of fasting worse.

Fasting and Cancer

Fasting can have positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. In mice, alternate day fasting caused a major reduction in the incidence of lymphomas (Descamps et al., 2005) and fasting for 1 day per week delayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice (Berrigan et al., 2002). However, the major decrease in glucose, insulin and IGF-1 caused by fasting, which is accompanied by cell death and/or atrophy in a wide range of tissues and organs including the liver and kidneys, is followed by a period of abnormally high cellular proliferation in these tissues driven in part by the replenishment of growth factors during refeeding. When combined with carcinogens during refeeding, this increased proliferative activity can actually increase carcinogenesis and/or pre-cancerous lesions in tissues including liver and colon (Tessitore et al., 1996). Although these studies underline the need for an in depth understanding of its mechanisms of action, fasting is expected to have cancer preventive effects as indicated by the studies above and by the findings that multiple cycles of periodic fasting can be as effective as toxic chemotherapy in the treatment of some cancers in mice (Lee et al., 2012).

In the treatment of cancer, fasting has been shown to have more consistent and positive effects. PF for 2–3 days was shown to protect mice from a variety of chemotherapy drugs, an effect called differential stress resistance (DSR) to reflect the inability of cancer cells to become protected based on the role of oncogenes in negatively regulating stress resistance, thus rendering cancer cells, by definition, unable to become protected in response to fasting conditions (Figure 5) (Raffaghello et al., 2008). PF also causes a major sensitization of various cancer cells to chemo-treatment, since it fosters an extreme environment in combination with the stress conditions caused by chemotherapy. In contrast to the protected state entered by normal cells during fasting, cancer cells are unable to adapt, a phenomenon called differential stress sensitization (DSS), based on the notion that most mutations are deleterious and that the many mutations accumulated in cancer cells promote growth under standard conditions but render them much less effective in adapting to extreme environments (Lee et al., 2012). In mouse models of metastatic tumors, combinations of fasting and chemotherapy that cause DSR and DSS, result in 20 to 60% cancer-free survival compared to the same levels of chemotherapy or fasting alone, which are not sufficient to cause any cancer-free survival (Lee et al., 2012; Shi et al., 2012). Thus, the idea that cancer could be treated with weeks of fasting alone, made popular decades ago, may be only partially true, at least for some type of cancers, but is expected to be ineffective for other types of cancers. The efficacy of long-term fasting alone (2 weeks or longer) in cancer treatment will need to be tested in carefully designed clinical trials in which side effects including malnourishment and possibly a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to certain infections are carefully monitored. By contrast, animal data from multiple laboratories indicate that the combination of fasting cycles with chemotherapy is highly and consistently effective in enhancing chemotherapeutic index and has high translation potential. A number of ongoing trials should soon begin to determine the efficacy of fasting in enhancing cancer treatment in the clinic.

Fasting and Neurodegeneration

Compared to ad libitum-fed controls, rats and mice maintained on an IF diet exhibit less neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and fewer clinical symptoms in models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). These models include transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes that cause dominantly inherited AD (amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1) and frontotemporal lobe dementia (Tau) (Halagappa et al., 2007), PD (α-synuclein) (Griffioen et al., 2012) and HD (huntingtin) (Duan et al., 2003), as well as neurotoxin-based models pertinent to AD, PD and HD (Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Duan and Mattson, 1999). Animals on an IF diet also fare better than ad libitum-fed controls after acute injury including severe epileptic seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries (Arumugam et al., 2010; Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Plunet et al., 2008).

Several interrelated cellular mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of IF on the nervous system including reduced accumulation of oxidatively damaged molecules, improved cellular bioenergetics, enhanced neurotrophic factor signaling, and reduced inflammation (Mattson, 2012a). The latter neuroprotective mechanisms are supported by studies showing that IF diets boost levels of antioxidant defenses, neurotrophic factors (BDNF and FGF2) and protein chaperones (HSP-70 and GRP-78), and reduce levels of pro- inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) (Figure 4) (Arumugam et al., 2010). IF may also promote restoration of damaged nerve cell circuits by stimulating synapse formation and the production of new neurons from neural stem cells (neurogenesis) (Lee et al., 2002). Interestingly, while beneficial in models of most neurodegenerative conditions, there is evidence that fasting can hasten neurodegeneration in some models of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, perhaps because the motor neurons affected in those models are unable to respond adaptively to the moderate stress imposed by fasting (Mattson et al., 2007; Pedersen and Mattson, 1999).

Fasting and the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MS), defined as abdominal adiposity, combined with insulin resistance, elevated triglycerides and/or hypertension, greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke and AD. Rats and mice maintained under the usual ad libitum feeding condition develop an MS-like phenotype as they age. MS can also be induced in younger animals by feeding them a diet high in fat and simple sugars (Martin et al., 2010). IF can prevent and reverse all aspects of the MS in rodents: abdominal fat, inflammation and blood pressure are reduced, insulin sensitivity is increased, and the functional capacities of the nervous, neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems are improved (Castello et al., 2010; Wan et al., 2003). Hyperglycemia is ameliorated by IF in rodent models of diabetes (Pedersen et al., 1999) and the heart is protected against ischemic injury in myocardial infarction models (Ahmet et al., 2005). A protective effect of fasting against ischemic renal and liver injury occurs rapidly, with 1 – 3 days of fasting improving functional outcome and reducing tissue injury and mortality (Mitchell et al., 2010). Six days on a diet missing just a single essential amino acid such as tryptophan can also elicit changes in metabolism and stress resistance, similar to those caused by fasting, which are dependent on the amino acid sensing kinase Gcn2 (Peng et al., 2012).

Multiple hormonal changes that typify MS in humans a re observed in rodents maintained on high fat and sugar diets including elevated levels of insulin and leptin and reduced levels of adiponectin and ghrelin. Elevated leptin levels are typically reflective of a pro- inflammatory state, whereas adiponectin and ghrelin can suppress inflammation and increase insulin sensitivity (Baatar et al., 2011; Yamauchi et al., 2001). Local inflammation in hypothalamic nuclei that control energy intake and expenditure may contribute to a sustained positive energy balance in MS (Milanski et al., 2012). Fasting results in a lowering of insulin and leptin levels and an elevation of adiponectin and ghrelin levels. By increasing insulin and leptin sensitivity, suppressing inflammation and stimulating autophagy, fasting reverses all the major abnormalities of the MS in rodents (Singh et al., 2009; Wan et al., 2010). Finally, in addition to its many effects on cells throughout the body and brain, IF may elicit changes in the gut microbiota that protect against MS (Tremaroli and Backhed, 2012). Naturally, the challenge of applying fasting-based interventions to treat MS in humans is a major one, as some obese individuals may have difficulties in following IF for long periods.

Dr Jimenez White Coat

The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet is a 5-day meal program consisting of scientifically developed and clinically tested, natural ingredients which “trick” the human body into a fasting mode. The FMD is low in carbohydrates as well as proteins and it’s high in fats. The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet promotes a variety of healthy benefits, including weight loss and decreased abdominal fat, all while preserving lead body mass, improved energy levels, softer and healthier looking skin, as well as overall health and wellness. The FMD can promote longevity.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Fasting, Aging, and Disease in Humans

Fasting and Factors Implicated in Aging

Clinical and epidemiological data are consistent wit h an ability of fasting to retard the aging process and associated diseases. Major factors implicated in aging whose generation are accelerated by gluttonous lifestyles and slowed by energy restriction in humans include: 1) oxidative damage to proteins, DNA and lipids; 2) inflammation; 3) accumulation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles; and 4) elevated glucose, insulin and IGF-I, although IGF-1decreases with aging and its severe deficiency can be associated with certain pathologies (Bishop et al., 2010; Fontana and Klein, 2007). Serum markers of oxidative damage and inflammation as well as clinical symptoms are reduced over a period of 2–4 weeks in asthma patients maintained on an alternate day fasting diet (Johnson et al., 2007). Similarly, when on a 2 days/week fasting diet overweight women at risk for breast cancer exhibited reduced oxidative stress and inflammation (Harvie et al., 2011) and elderly men exhibited reductions in body weight and body fat, and improved mood (Teng et al., 2011). Additional effects of fasting in human cells that can be considered as potentially ‘anti-aging’ are inhibition the mTOR pathway, stimulation of autophagy and ketogenesis (Harvie et al., 2011; Sengupta et al., 2010).

Among the major effects of fasting relevant to aging and diseases are changes in the levels of IGF-1, IGFBP1, glucose, and insulin. Fasting for 3 or more days causes a 30% or more decrease in circulating insulin and glucose, as well as rapid decline in the levels of insulin- like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the major growth factor in mammals, which together with insulin is associated with accelerated aging and cancer (Fontana et al., 2010). In humans, five days of fasting causes an over 60% decrease in IGF-1and a 5-fold or higher increase in one of the principal IGF-1-inhibiting proteins: IGFBP1 (Thissen et al., 1994a). This effect of fasting on IGF-1is mostly due to protein restriction, and particularly to the restriction of essential amino acids, but is also supported by calorie restriction since the decrease in insulin levels during fasting promotes reduction in IGF-1(Thissen et al., 1994a). Notably, in humans, chronic calorie restriction does not lead to a decrease in IGF-1unless combined with protein restriction (Fontana et al., 2008).

IF can be achieved in with a minimal decrease in overall calorie intake if the refeeding period in which subjects overeat is considered. Thus, fasting cycles provide a much more feasible strategy to achieve the beneficial effects of CR, and possibly stronger effects, without the burden of chronic underfeeding and some of the potentially adverse effects associated with weight loss or very low BMIs. In fact, subjects who are moderately overweight (BMI of 25–30) in later life can have reduced overall mortality risk compared to subjects of normal weight (Flegal et al., 2013). Although these results may be affected by the presence of many existing or developing pathologies in the low weight control group, they underline the necessity to differentiate between young individuals and elderly individuals who may use CR or fasting to reduce weight or delay aging. Although extreme dietary interventions during old age may continue to protect from age-related diseases, they could have detrimental effects on the immune system and the ability to respond to certain infectious diseases, wounds and other challenges (Kristan, 2008; Reed et al., 1996). However, IF or PF designed to avoid weight loss and maximize nourishment have the potential to have beneficial effects on infectious diseases, wounds and other insults even in the very old. Nourishment of subjects can be achieved by complementing IF or PF with micro- and macro Studies to test the effect of IF or PF regimens on markers of aging, cancer, cognition and obesity are in progress (V. Longo and M. Mattson).

Fasting and Cancer

Fasting has the potential for applications in both cancer prevention and treatment. Although no human data are available on the effect of IF or PF in cancer prevention, their effect on reducing IGF-1, insulin and glucose levels, and increasing IGFBP1 and ketone body levels could generate a protective environment that reduces DNA damage and carcinogenesis, while at the same time creating hostile conditions for tumor and pre-cancerous cells (Figure 5). In fact, elevated circulating IGF-1 is associated with increased risk of developing certain cancers (Chan et al., 2000; Giovannucci et al., 2000) and individuals with severe IGF-1deficiency caused by growth hormone receptor deficiency, rarely develop cancer (Guevara-Aguirre et al., 2011; Shevah and Laron, 2007; Steuerman et al., 2011). Furthermore, the serum from these IGF-1deficient subjects protected human epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, once their DNA became damaged, cells were more likely to undergo programmed cell death (Guevara-Aguirre et al., 2011). Thus, fasting may protect from cancer by reducing cellular and DNA damage but also by enhancing the death of pre-cancerous cells.

In a preliminary study of 10 subjects with a variety of malignancies, the combination of chemotherapy with fasting resulted in a decrease in a range of self-reported common side effects caused by chemotherapy compared to the same subjects receiving chemotherapy while on a standard diet (Safdie et al., 2009). The effect of fasting on chemotherapy toxicity and cancer progression is now being tested in clinical trials in both Europe and the US (0S-08-9, 0S-10-3).

Fasting and Neurodegeneration

Our current understanding of the impact of IF on the nervous system and cognitive functions is largely inferred from animal studies (see above). Interventional studies to determine the impact of fasting on brain function and neurodegenerative disease processes are lacking.

After 3–4 month, CR improved cognitive function (verbal memory) in overweight women (Kretsch et al., 1997) and in elderly subjects (Witte et al., 2009). Similarly, when subjects with mild cognitive impairment were maintained for 1 month on a low glycemic diet, they exhibited improved delayed visual memory, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Aβ metabolism and brain bioenergetics (Bayer-Carter et al., 2011). Studies in which cognitive function, regional brain volumes, neural network activity, and biochemical analyses of cerebrospinal fluid are measured in human subjects before and during an extended period of IF should clarify the impact of IF on human brain structure and function.

Fasting, Inflammation and Hypertension

In humans, one of the best demonstrations of the beneficial effects of long-term fasting lasting one to 3 weeks is in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In agreement with the results in rodents, there is little doubt that during the period of fasting both inflammation and pain are reduced in RA patients (Muller et al., 2001). However, after the normal diet is resumed, inflammation returns unless the fasting period is followed by a vegetarian diet (Kjeldsen-Kragh et al., 1991), a combination therapy that has beneficial effects lasting for two years or longer (Kjeldsen-Kragh et al., 1994). The validity of this approach is supported by four differently controlled studies, including two randomized trials (Muller et al., 2001). Therefore, fasting combined with a vegetarian diet and possibly with other modified diets provides beneficial effects in the treatment of RA. Alternate day IF also resulted in significant reductions in serum TNFα and ceramides in asthma patients during a 2 month period (Johnson et al., 2007). The latter study further showed that markers of oxidative stress often associated with inflammation (protein and lipid oxidation) were significantly reduced in response to IF. Thus, for many patients able and willing to endure long-term fasting and to permanently modify their diet, fasting cycles would have the potential to not only augment but also replace existing medical treatments.

Water only and other forms of long-term fasting have also been documented to have potent effects on hypertension. An average of 13 days of water only fasting resulted in the achievement of a systolic blood pressure (BP) below 120 in 82% of subjects with borderline hypertension with a mean 20 mm Hg reduction in BP (Goldhamer et al., 2002). BP remained significantly lower compared to baseline even after subjects resumed the normal diet for an average of 6 days (Goldhamer et al., 2002). A small pilot study of patients with hypertension (140 mm and above systolic BP) also showed that 10–11 days of fasting caused a 37–60 mm decrease in systolic BP (Goldhamer et al., 2001). These preliminary studies are promising but underscore the need for larger controlled and randomized clinical studies that focus on periodic fasting strategies that are feasible for a larger portion of the population.

For both hypertension and RA it will be important to develop PF mimicking diets that are as effective as the fasting regimens described above but that are also tolerable by the great majority of patients.

Fasting and the Metabolic Syndrome

Periodic fasting can reverse multiple features of the metabolic syndrome in humans: it enhances insulin sensitivity, stimulates lipolysis and reduces blood pressure. Body fat and blood pressure were reduced and glucose metabolism improved in obese subjects in response to an alternate day modified fast (Klempel et al., 2013; Varady et al., 2009). Overweight subjects maintained for 6 months on a twice weekly IF diet in which they consumed only 500–600 calories on the fasting days, lost abdominal fat, displayed improved insulin sensitivity and reduced blood pressure (Harvie et al., 2011). Three weeks of alternate day fasting resulted in reductions in body fat and insulin levels in normal weight men and women (Heilbronn et al., 2005) and Ramadan fasting (2 meals/day separated by approximately 12 hours) in subjects with MS resulted in decreased daily energy intake, decreased plasma glucose levels and increased insulin sensitivity (Shariatpanahi et al., 2008). Subjects undergoing coronary angiography who reported that they fasted regularly exhibited a lower prevalence of diabetes compared to non-fasters (Horne et al., 2012). Anti- metabolic syndrome effects of IF were also observed in healthy young men (BMI of 25) after 15 days of alternate day fasting: their whole-body glucose uptake rates increased significantly, levels of plasma ketone bodies and adiponectin were elevated, all of which occurred without a significant decrease in body weight (Halberg et al., 2005). The latter findings are similar to data from animal studies showing that IF can improve glucose metabolism even with little or no weight change (Anson et al., 2003). It will be important to determine if longer fasting periods which promote a robust switch to a fat breakdown and ketone body-based metabolism, can cause longer lasting and more potent effects.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on the existing evidence from animal and human studies described, we conclude that there is great potential for lifestyles that incorporate periodic fasting during adult life to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, particularly for those who are overweight and sedentary. Animal studies have documented robust and replicable effects of fasting on health indicators including greater insulin sensitivity, and reduced levels of blood pressure, body fat, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, atherogenic lipids and inflammation. Fasting regimens can ameliorate disease processes and improve functional outcome in animal models of disorders that include myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, AD and PD. One general mechanism of action of fasting is that it triggers adaptive cellular stress responses, which result in an enhanced ability to cope with more severe stress and counteract disease processes. In addition, by protecting cells from DNA damage, suppressing cell growth and enhancing apoptosis of damaged cells, fasting could retard and/ or prevent the formation and growth of cancers.

However, studies of fasting regimens have not been performed in children, the very old and underweight individuals, and it is possible that IF and PF would be harmful to these populations. Fasting periods lasting longer than 24 hours and particularly those lasting 3 or more days should be done under the supervision of a physician and preferably in a clinic. IF- and PF-based approaches towards combating the current epidemics of overweight, diabetes and related diseases should be pursued in human research studies and medical treatment plans. Several variations of potential ‘fasting prescriptions’ that have been adopted for overweight subjects revolve around the common theme of abstaining from food and caloric beverages for at least 12 – 24 hours on one or more days each week or month, depending on the length, combined with regular exercise. For those who are overweight, physicians could ask their patients to choose a fasting-based intervention that they believe they could comply with based upon their daily and weekly schedules. Examples include the ‘5:2’ IF diet (Harvie et al., 2011), the alternate day modified fasting diet (Johnson et al., 2007; Varady et al., 2009), a 4–5 day fast or low calorie but high nourishment fasting mimicking diets once every 1–3 months followed by the skipping of one major meal every day if needed (V. Longo, clinical trial in progress). One of the concerns with unbalanced alternating diets such as those in which low calorie intake is only observed for 2 days a week are the potential effects on circadian rhythm and the endocrine and gastrointestinal systems, which are known to be influenced by eating habits. During the first 4 – 6 weeks of implementation of the fasting regimen, a physician or registered dietitian should be in regular contact with the patient to monitor their progress and to provide advice and supervision.

Fasting regimens could also be tailored for specific diseases as stand-alone or adjunct therapies. Results of initial trials of IF (fasting 2 days per week or every other day) in human subjects suggest that there is a critical transition period of 3 – 6 weeks during which time the brain and body adapt to the new eating pattern and mood is enhanced (Harvie et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2007). Though speculative, it is likely that during the latter transition period brain neurochemistry changes so that the ‘addiction’ to regular consumption of food throughout the day is overcome. Notably, the various fasting approaches are likely to have limited efficacy particularly on aging and conditions other than obesity unless combined with diets such as the moderate calorie intake and mostly plant-based Mediterranean or Okinawa low protein diets (0.8 g protein/Kg of body weight), consistently associated with health and longevity.

In the future, it will be important to combine epidemiological data, studies of long-lived populations and their diets, results from model organisms connecting specific dietary components to pro-aging and pro-disease factors, with data from studies on fasting regimens in humans, to design large clinical studies that integrate fasting with diets recognized as protective and enjoyable. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which fasting affects various cell types and organ systems should lead to the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for a wide range of disorders.

Take Home Message

The fasting mimicking diet provides the same benefits of traditional fasting by restricting your calorie intake for five days out of the month instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks. The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled in precise quantities and combinations for each day. Although the research study above has demonstrated the health benefits of fasting, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program to find out if the FMD, or any other diet, is right for you.

The published, final edited form of the research study referenced above was made available in the NIH Public Access Author Manuscript on PMC February 4, 2015. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine topics. To further discuss the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Referenced from: Nih.gov

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

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ProLon® FMD Program | El Paso, TX.

ProLon® FMD Program | El Paso, TX.

Heard about fasting? It is defined as, “abstinence from eating.” What this diet has the potential for in medical benefits has increased quite substantially — both in animal and medical research. Inventor of the Fast Mimicking Diet (FMD) Dr. Longo is recognized as a leading expert on longevity and has done intense work in biochemical pathways. In other words the way cells and we as humans age. This diet can change all that!

What’s all the hype about the FMD?

After years of experimenting with FMD in animal models and showing its benefits on metabolism and life span, Dr. Longo’s team analyzed the effects in human clinical trials. One hundred healthy subjects participated with half of them following the Prolon FMD five days a month for three months, while the other half ate their regular diet.

  • Profound differences were seen in terms of:
  • Weight loss
  • Visceral fat loss
  • Drop in:
  • Blood pressure
  • Blood sugar
  • Blood cholesterol
  • Markers of inflammation (FMD participants)
  • Drop in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1); (this is a biomarker for cancer growth).
  • Increase in stem cell production, (this is a marker for cell regeneration).

This diet works by shifting the body’s metabolism and enhancing the power of cells to help protect against chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This idea is beginning to catch on: according to a 2018 survey from the International Food Information Council Foundation, intermittent fasting was last year’s most popular diet. Dr. Longo is now studying if a fast-mimicking diet can improve cancer ­outcomes and help prevent the disease.

Dr. Longo addresses the point that the more healthy food an individual chooses, the more one can eat. Individuals can still eat fats like pesto, and starches like pasta. The benefits happen when the individual loads up on produce. This brings in more nutrients, more fiber and the feeling of being more full. Dr. Longo is also working on the ability to train an individual’s body to eat within a 12-hour day, which acts as a quick fast overnight.

Los Angeles, Calif.July 31, 2018—On July 10, L-Nutra, Inc. became the first company to market a product that has been granted a patent by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) for optimizing human healthspan, the length of time that a person is healthy. This follows a landmark patent issued in 2016 for treating diabetes and multiple patents previously issued for cancer treatment, but this is the first patented protocol to address health and wellness prior to the onset of disease. The patent is for the Fasting Mimicking Diet® (FMD®), discovered and clinically tested by the laboratory of Valter Longo and Keck Hospital at the University of Southern California (USC), a nutrition technology that is proven to reduce markers for age-related disease as well as promote tissue regeneration. The Fasting Mimicking Diet is one of few nutri-technologies that has undergone extensive scientific research and clinical trials at major universities across the world. Last year, a landmark human trial published in Science Translational Medicine demonstrated that ProLon is clinically proven to reduce markers of the body’s aging process, optimize weight, and maintain healthy levels of multiple metabolic markers such as cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and CRP (an inflammatory marker). The secret to the Fasting Mimicking Diet relies on the body’s activation of the epigenetic, metabolic, and cellular reprogramming to survive prolonged periods of fasting. Fasting Mimicking Diet Is Awarded First-Ever Patent for Optimizing Human Healthspan

Interested?

Information

  • Diet Decreases Calorie Intake to 1,100 on Day One
  • Then Around 800 the Next Four Days
  • The program is rich in nuts — so not for those with a nut allergy
  • Nutrients are crucial and are plant-based whole foods:
  • Nuts
  • Olives (note if don’t like olives)
  • Teas
  • Soup mixes – which are 80% fat, 10% protein, and 10% carbohydrate.
  • During the five days fast:
  • Exercise and Alcohol are prohibited
  • Coffee is limited to zero or one cup a day

How to Use ProLon FMD

Ready?

What to know. To achieve the published results, one will possibly need to go through three cycles at specific times, where they don’t conflict with family/social events like birthdays, weddings, quinceaneras, etc. After three months some will choose to do the program monthly or every other month for long-term health.

Increased Brain Power Study

  • Preliminary studies with FMD showed remarkable brain changes
  • FMD fed to mice four days in a row twice a month:
  • Extended longevity
  • Lowered visceral fat
  • Reduced cancer incidence and
  • Skin Lesions
  • Rejuvenated the immune system
  • Slowed down bone density loss
  • In old mice, FMD cycles promoted:
  • Brain growth
  • Demonstrate improved cognitive performance
  • It is possible that the best brains may result from the least caloric intake for five days a month
Five Day Fasting Mimicking Diet In El Paso, Tx.

Five Day Fasting Mimicking Diet In El Paso, Tx.

El Paso, TX. Chiropractor, Dr. Alexander Jimenez examines how the Fasting Mimicking diet works. What it does, how to take it and the optimal health benefits.

The Diet Where You Fast With Food!

  • The 5 Day Fasting Mimicking Diet™, or FMD, is the first fasting meal program.
  • Made from natural ingredients.
  • Meals are consumed for five days.
  • The body’s ( cellular pathways) do not recognize the meals as food.
  • This keeps the body in a fasting mode.
  • This diet is proven to promote overall health.
  • Reduce excess fat.
  • Allows you freedom.

Scientifically developed and clinically tested at the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California. Led by Dr. Valter Longo, the USC Longevity Institute unites multidisciplinary aging research approaches to enhance the healthy years of life.

The FMD is the only meal program that provides the body with optimal nourishment, which keeps the body in fasting mode.

fasting mimicking diet el paso tx.

 

Take ProLon® What For?

Two decades of scientific discoveries at the University of Southern California.

fasting mimicking diet el paso tx.

Nutritional-Tech

  • All natural, plant-based, high-quality food and supplements
  • Experience the benefits of fasting, but with natural foods
  • Conveniently packaged in single-serve portions for each day of the program

ProLon® Can

  • Decrease body fat
  • Decrease body weight
  • Preserve lean body mass
  • 60% weight loss maintained 3 months after resuming a normal diet

Maintain Levels

  • Blood glucose
  • Blood pressure
  • Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • C-reactive proteins
  • Stem cells Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1

Meals

The Program Itself

  • Consume the ProLon® meal program‘s components for five consecutive days
  • Do not consume any additional food/liquid other than water or herbal teas without caffeine or additives
  • No sodas allowed
  • Resume a healthy diet for the rest of the month

In order to maximize the benefits, you should minimize your consumption of caffeine to 1 cup of coffee or tea without additives or sweeteners per day during the 5-day program.

 

Resume Normal Healthy Diet

At the end of the program on Day 6

  • Liquid foods, such as soups and fruit juices
  • Light meals: rice, pasta, small portions of fish/meat/legumes
  • Avoid binge eating

Fast Performance

 

The Expectations?

Individuals taking ProLon® a have reported

  • Improved energy levels
  • Less fatigue
  • Softer and shinier skin
  • A positive impact on lifestyle
  • Making healthier choices and eating less
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How Often Should Somebody Take The 5-Day ProLon® Diet?

The ProLon clinical trials protocol included three consecutive cycles of ProLon (5-day only per month over three consecutive months). It is up to the practitioner to decide the best method that he or she would like to use for each patient. It is suggested that for patients who are obese or overweight, to use ProLon for one three cycle protocol, and recommend that you check with your doctor to re-assess and determine if they have met their goals or if more cycles would be helpful. If a patient is not overweight and eats and exercises well, it is suggested to take the product 1-2 times a year.

Caution

  • Due to the low caloric nature of the ProLon® 5-day meal program, Individuals should not take ProLon® in combination with prescription or non-prescription drugs unless approved by your healthcare professional.
  • Drink at least 8 cups of water to minimize the risk of dehydration.
  • Avoid alcohol consumption, strenuous exercise, and exposure to high temperatures (e.g., saunas, spas, Jacuzzi) or cold environments and swimming.
  • Operate a motor vehicle and heavy machinery with care until it is known how ProLon® may affect you.

Clinical Methodology

Pre-clinical and clinical studies have proven that periodic fasting, done for several days, is a very powerful intervention that our bodies learned to naturally cope with by protecting and rejuvenating itself. The 5-Day ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet has been clinically tested and found to promote beneficial effects in a wide variety of conditions ranging from excess weight and fasting blood glucose, to growth factors associated with DNA damage and aging.

  • A randomized control trial of 100 subjects
  • 71 completed 3 cycles of the ProLon® either in a randomized phase (N=39) or
  • After being crossed over from a control diet group to the FMD group (N=32)
  • Control subjects continued with a normal diet.
  • ProLon® participants consumed the fasting mimicking diet (FMD) for 5 days per month for 3 months.
  • Measurements were performed prior to the diet (Before) and (During) the recovery period and (After) the 3rd cycle.
 

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Clinical Results

Elevated Risk Results

ProLon® is clinically tested, an easy-to-take 5-day meal program that enhances your health without dramatic lifestyle changes

Pre-Clinical Trials

fasting mimicking diet el paso tx.
  • In the first study from the Clinical and Translational Report, yeast deprived of food periodically were shown to have longer life expectancy than yeast fed normally.
  • The second study involved feeding a group of mice a specialized diet for four days a month.
  • The diet reduced both caloric intake and protein intake.
  • The scientists tested markers in the blood of the mice and found that the diet emulated prolonged water-only fasting.
  • After returning to regular feeding, the mice regained most, but not all of the lost weight.
  • Differences between the Fasting Mimicking Diet group and the control group include improved metabolism and cognitive function, gradual weight loss, muscle rejuvenation, higher bone density, 40% fewer malignant lymphomas, immune system regeneration, and longer average life expectancy.

A Third Study

  • There were nineteen participants and nineteen control participants with a broad range of ages (19-75).
  • Members of both sexes and various races so that the study represented a general cross-section of, adult population.
  • The individuals in the Fasting Mimicking Diet group were provided with the food they were required to eat during the five days.
  • Scientists were happy with the compliance level of the diet, and most reported only mild or no negative effects on the fast days.
  • Results showed that the FMD participants experienced an average:
  • 3% reduction in weight
  • Reduction in visceral fat
  • Reduction in C-reactive protein
  • Rejuvenation of the immune system

Those Who Should Not Use ProLon®

  • Children under the age of 18
  • Women who are pregnant or nursing
  • Individuals who are allergic to nuts or soy
  • Individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) <18
  • Individuals diagnosed with serious medical condition or disease unless approved in writing by a physician appropriately trained to treat that condition
  • Individuals who have been severely weakened by a disease or medical procedure
  • Individuals who are taking medications which may not be safely consumed with a calorie restricted diet unless authorized in writing by a licensed physician
  • Individuals with Diabetes (type 1 and type 2), cardiovascular disease and cancer, unless approved in writing by a licensed physician. ProLon® should never be combined with glucose-lowering drugs, such as metformin or insulin
  • Fasting is prohibited for individuals with particular metabolic diseases, such as those affecting gluconeogenesis.
  • Individuals with a history of significant cardiac disease, particularly uncompensated congestive heart failure NYHA grade 2 or more or LVEF <40% on any prior assessment
  • Individuals with a history of syncope (fainting) with calorie restriction or other medical co-morbidities Individuals who have special dietary needs that are incompatible with the ProLon® meal plan
  • Individuals with liver or kidney disorders that may be affected by very low glucose and protein content of the diet

Chiropractic Weight Loss Treatment

ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet Benefits

ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet Benefits

Fasting offers numerous health benefits, from increasing insulin sensitivity and promoting weight loss to enhancing the immune system. Although we all want the benefits of fasting, many of us can’t embrace the idea of not eating for extended periods of time. However, what if you could achieve all the healthy advantages of a fast without having to skip meals?

The fasting mimicking diet, sometimes abbreviated as FMD, is a nutritional regimen. It consists of eating natural ingredients for five days which “tricks” the human body into a fasting mode. Research studies have demonstrated the fasting mimicking diet’s ability to improve overall health and wellness. Below, we will discuss the benefits of the fasting mimicking diet.

How Does the Fasting Mimicking Diet Work?

By restricting the food you eat, the fasting mimicking diet can provide similar health benefits as traditional fasting like reduced inflammation and fat burning. The difference, however, is that instead of not eating any food for several days or weeks, you’re simply limiting your calorie intake for five days. You can do the FMD once a month or every other month to promote well-being.

The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program offers individually packed and labeled foods for each day in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program consists of ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, such as bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. The products are scientifically formulated and great tasting.

FMD Macronutrient Ratios

First, you will restrict your calories to 1,100 calories on day one of the FMD. Then, you will restrict your calories to 800 calories on the other four days. What you eat and in what ratios you eat those foods is fundamental in the fasting mimicking diet. Healthcare professionals will recommend different ratios of macronutrients, the three basic components of every diet.

The most common recommendation is to eat 1,100 calories following a macronutrient ratio of 34 percent carbohydrates, 10 percent proteins, and 56 percent fats on day one. For the remaining four days, the most common recommendation is to eat 800 calories following a macronutrient ratio of 47 percent carbohydrates, 9 percent proteins, and 44 percent fats.

Other healthcare professionals recommend a macronutrient ratio with as much as 80 percent of calories coming from fat, and 10 percent from carbohydrates and proteins, respectively. According to Dr. Valter Longo, creator of the FMD, “the fasting mimicking diet allows the natural process of starvation, including autophagy, and stem cell regeneration, to occur without interruption.

The Science Behind the FMD

Research studies have demonstrated that limiting calorie intake provides many benefits for the lifespan of animals. However, what does the science say about the benefits of the fasting mimicking diet on humans? A recent research study evaluated the effects of the FMD in people and found some promising outcome measures. The research study was conducted on 100 healthy participants.

Half of the participants followed the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program every month and the other half of the participants followed a regular diet. After three months, the FMD group experienced weight loss, including visceral fat reduction, as well as decreased blood glucose, blood pressure, and markers of inflammation. The FMD group also experienced a drop in insulin-like growth factor 1, more frequently known as 1GF-1, which is considered to be a biomarker for cancer development.

Dr Jimenez White Coat
The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program provides numerous health benefits while providing balanced nourishment. The FMD can promote weight loss as well as maintain healthy levels of blood glucose, BP, cholesterol, and triglycerides, C-reactive proteins, stem cells, and insulin-like growth factor 1 or IGF-1. Following the FMD alongside healthy lifestyle modifications can help improve overall health and wellness. Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Other Fasting Mimicking Diet Benefits

The FMD has been demonstrated to give you protective, regenerative, and rejuvenating advantages while continuing to provide you with the balanced nourishment you need. Below, we will discuss several other health benefits of the fasting mimicking diet.

Decreases Cholesterol

The same research study mentioned above also demonstrated that after three months, the FMD group experienced decreased levels of total and bad LDL cholesterol. When we have increased levels of cholesterol in our blood, it can cause plaque to build up in our arteries, causing the hardening, and the narrowing of the arteries. This may lead to a heart attack and coronary heart disease. If you combine the FMD with lifestyle modifications, you can lower and maintain healthy cholesterol levels and keep your heart healthy.

Reduces Inflammation

We already mentioned that the FMD research study demonstrated it could decrease inflammation. However, we should first discuss what inflammation is and what it can do to the human body. Inflammation is one of the human body’s defense mechanisms. Your inflammation is triggered by your immune system to protect you from foreign invaders that could cause infection, illness, or injury.

By way of instance, let’s imagine you get a splinter in your finger. Your finger will become red and inflamed almost immediately. Your body is utilizing inflammation to protect itself from this foreign object. When you get a cut or an insect bite, the same holds true. However, how does inflammation affect our well-being? Chronic inflammation can lead to many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. The FMD has the potential to reduce the possibility of developing chronic diseases.

Improves Brain Health

The fasting mimicking diet can also help improve our brain health. In a 2015 animal research study, the FMD improved cognition and promoted the regeneration of neurons in the brains of mice. Additionally, it decreased the markers of aging in the subjects.

Can Help Reverse Diabetes

The FMD can positively affect insulin production. In another animal research study, blood glucose levels were preserved and more insulin-producing beta cells were produced in mice. The Science Translational Medicine research study also demonstrated that the participants following the FMD experienced a reduction in glucose levels. Although further evidence is required, there are strong indications that healthy lifestyle modifications can help control and even reverse diabetes.

How to Start the Fasting Mimicking Diet

I encourage you to work with your healthcare professional if you’re interested in the FMD. You will also need advice and guidance from a qualified healthcare professional to help you decide on your proper macronutrient ratios. In summary, you should be eating a diet full of plant-rich whole foods, with an emphasis on nuts and olives. You could also eat soups and broths as well as herbal teas.

Make sure you also avoid the consumption of alcohol and carbonated drinks. Instead, you can drink two cups of black tea or coffee. Furthermore, you shouldn’t exercise vigorously during those five days. Consider taking a gentle walk around the block.

Research studies have demonstrated promising results with the fasting mimicking diet. However, the FMD may not be for everyone. Pregnant women and older adults shouldn’t try the FMD. If you’d like to experience the health benefits of the FMD yourself, talk with your doctor and/or a nutritionist. Doing more than one cycle every month could ultimately affect your overall health and wellness.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic and spinal health issues as well as functional medicine topics and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.  

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