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ProLon®

This is a 5-day dietary program that nourishes the body while promoting regenerative and rejuvenating changes, including supporting healthy levels of a wide range of physiological markers that contribute to aging, such as cholesterol, inflammation, and fasting glucose.

  • Meals come in 5 small boxes (one for each day) that include:
  • Plant-based energy bars,
  • Soups
  • Snacks
  • Drinks
  • Supplements

All studied and carefully designed to nourish the body and support healthy levels in metabolic markers, cellular rejuvenation, and healthy aging.

ProLon ingredients are plant-based and do not contain additives, preservatives* or chemicals. The daily caloric intake with ProLon is between 770 and 1100 calories from healthy ingredients that maximize nourishment and provide a pleasant eating experience.

ProLon market research and consumer panels demonstrated:

  • Very good taste
  • Convenient and easy day-by-day packaging
  • Minimal disruption to daily lifestyle

Five Days With ProLon® And You Will See Results | El Paso, TX.

Five Days With ProLon® And You Will See Results | El Paso, TX.

Recent science has unleashed the power of fasting to optimize body aging and dismantle chronic diseases, e.g., obesity, diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease. At El Paso Back Clinic, Dr. Jimenez’s mission is to educate the public about the health benefits of fasting. The idea is to introduce it to them in a safe, effective way through the Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD).

Pre-clinical and clinical studies have proven that periodic fasting, done for several consecutive days, is a very powerful intervention that our bodies learned to naturally cope with by protecting and rejuvenating itself. These two factors are both anti-aging measures that offer additional health benefits. The 5-Day ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet has been clinically tested and found to promote beneficial effects in a wide variety of conditions ranging from excess weight and fasting blood glucose, to growth factors associated with DNA damage and aging.

Min Wei; Sebastian Brandhorst et al.
Fasting‐Mimicking Diet and Risk Factors for Aging, Diabetes, Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease.

5-Day Program

The ProLon meal plan is followed 5 days per month. Once an individual has finished the five-day plan, they go back to a normal healthy diet the last twenty-five days. Fasting with the Prolon® plan follows a low carbohydrate/protein meal and contains the good kind of fatty acids. The FMD® recipe keeps your body on a fasting-type mode, that triggers protection measures that the body has developed. This causes the body to optimize its performance, rejuvenate cells, and thrive.

Unboxing the ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet

just five days with prolon® el paso, tx.

Age-related Disease: A Revolution Is Coming

I just finished reading a groundbreaking book called The Longevity Diet: Discover the New Science Behind Stem Cell Activation and Regeneration to Slow Aging, Fight Disease, and Optimize Weight, which was written by Valter Longo, PhD,1 who is director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California and a principal scientist in the development and study of the fasting mimicking diet (FMD). I have followed Dr. Longo’s career for many years with great admiration. He has been published in top-tier journals. In his book, Dr. Longo writes about some exciting findings regarding the FMD research group consisting of 16-month-old mice, which are described as being the equivalent of a 45-year-old human: “A stem cell-dependent process rejuvenated the immune system. Regeneration also occurred in the liver, muscle, and brain. Levels of several types of stem cells increased.”1 He went on to explain: “The fasting itself destroys many damaged cells and damaged components inside the cells but it also activates stem cells.”1


Jeffrey S. Bland, PhD, FACN, FACB, Associate Editor
just five days with prolon® el paso, tx.

Get Your Free Copy At El Paso Back Clinic!

Fasting-Mimicking Diet Promotes b-Cell Regeneration to Reverse Diabetes

  • Fasting mimicking diet induces prenatal-development gene expression in adult pancreas
  • FMD promotes Ngn3 expression to generate insulin-producing b cells
  • Cycles of FMD reverse b-cell failure and rescue mice fromT1D and T2Dd
  • Inhibition of PKA or mTOR promotes Ngn3-driven b-cell regeneration in human T1D islets
just five days with prolon® el paso, tx.

Stem-cell-based therapies can potentially reverse organ dysfunction and diseases, but the removal of impaired tissue and activation of a program leading to organ regeneration pose major challenges. In mice, 4-day fasting mimicking diet (FMD) induces a stepwise expression of Sox17 and Pdx-1, followed by Ngn3-driven generation of insulin-producing b cells, resembling that observed during pancreatic development. FMD cycles restore insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in both type 2 and type 1diabetes mouse models.

In human type 1 diabetes pancreatic islets, fasting conditions reduce PKAand mTOR activity and induce Sox2 and Ngn3expression and insulin production. The effects of the FMD are reversed by IGF-1 treatment and recapitulated by PKA and mTOR inhibition. These results indicate that an FMD promotes the reprogramming of pancreatic cells to restore insulin generation in islets from T1D patients and reverse both T1D andT2D phenotypes in mouse models.

Chia-Wei Cheng,1,6,7Valentina Villani,2,7Roberta Buono,1,5,7Min Wei,1Sanjeev Kumar,4Omer H. Yilmaz,6Pinchas Cohen,1Julie B. Sneddon,3Laura Perin,2and Valter D. Longo1,4,5,8,*
just five days with prolon® el paso, tx.
Low-Carb Diet Tied to Heart Rhythm Disorder

Low-Carb Diet Tied to Heart Rhythm Disorder

Individuals getting a very low percentage of their daily calories from carbohydrates, such as fruits, grains, and starchy vegetables, are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation, or AFib. This health issue is one of the most prevalent heart rhythm disorders, according to a new research study being presented at the American College of Cardiology’s 68th Annual Scientific Session.

The research study examined the health records of almost 14,000 people spanning two or more decades. Researchers brought data from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, or ARIC, a research study controlled by the National Institutes of Health which was conducted from 1985 to 2016. Of almost 1,900 participants that were diagnosed through a mean of 22 years of follow-up, a majority of them were identified with AFib by researchers. The details of the research study are described below.

AFib and Carbohydrates

Research study participants were requested to report the everyday consumption of 66 distinct food items in a poll. The researchers utilized this information to gauge the percentage of calories which came from carbohydrates from each participant’s calorie intake. Carbohydrates were contained in roughly half of the daily calories consumed by the participants.

Researchers subsequently separated the participants into three separate groups categorized by low, moderate, and high carbohydrate intake, representing diets where carbohydrates consisted less than 44.8 percent of their daily calories, followed by 44.8 to 52.4 percent, and finally where carbohydrates consisted more than 52.4 percent of their daily calories, respectively.

Participants who reporting reduced carbohydrate consumption were the ones who had the highest probability of developing AFib, according to researchers. As the statistics of the research study later demonstrated, these participants were also 18 percent more likely to come up with AFib compared to those with moderate carbohydrate intake and 16 percent more likely to come up with AFib compared to those with high carbohydrate ingestion. Some diets can also help decrease the risk of heart rhythm disorders.

Dr Jimenez White Coat

The type of carbohydrates you eat can make a huge difference in your overall health and wellness. Complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates and these release a steady release of sugar, or glucose, into the blood stream. Complex carbohydrates, often referred to as “starchy” foods, include legumes, starchy vegetables, whole grain, and fiber. According to the research study in the following article, consuming low amounts of carbohydrates, which often includes fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can contribute to cardiovascular diseases, such as atrial fibrillation. When it comes to carbohydrates, it’s important to consume this essential macronutrient for overall health and wellness.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Nutrition for AFib

Restricting carbohydrates has become a popular weight loss plan. Many diets, such as the Paleo and the ketogenic diet, highlight the consumption of proteins. According to Xiaodong Zhuang, MD, PhD, cardiologist and the research study’s lead author, “The long-term impact of carbohydrate restriction remains controversial, particularly with respect to its own influence on cardiovascular disease.” “Considering the possible effects on arrhythmia, our research study indicates that this popular weight control system ought to be recommended carefully,” he stated in a statement published by the ACC.

The findings complement previous research studies, a number of which have correlated both polyunsaturated and high-carbohydrate diets with a greater probability of death. While previous research studies indicated that this part of the diet affected the outcome measures found, the research study itself didn’t determine these findings. “Low carbohydrate diets have been associated with greater risk of developing AFib irrespective of the type of fat or protein utilized to substitute the carbohydrate,” Zhuang said.

“Several possible mechanisms could explain why limiting carbohydrates may contribute to AFib,” Zhuang said. One is that individuals eating a low-carbohydrate diet often consume fewer fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Without these foods, individuals may experience more widespread inflammation, which has been connected with AFib. According to the research study, another potential explanation is that eating more fat and protein instead of carbohydrate-rich foods can result in oxidative stress, which has also been connected to AFib. The effect may be associated with an increased risk of other types of cardiovascular disease.

The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, eliminates the consumption of processed foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. While this diet program doesn’t focus on weight loss, the emphasis of the longevity diet plan is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help activate stem cell-based renewal, reduce abdominal fat, and prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, as well as build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease.

the-longevity-diet-book-new.png

The fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day, which serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat and easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out if this dietary program is right for you.

Furthermore, the research study didn’t monitor participants with asymptomatic AFib, or people who had AFib but were never admitted to a hospital. It didn’t investigate subtypes of AFib, therefore it’s unknown if patients were far more likely to have episodes of persistent or arrhythmia AFib. Zhuang reported that the research study didn’t show cause and effect. A randomized trial could be required to validate the connection between AFib and carbohydrate intake to evaluate the result in a more diverse population.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

Stop Eating This and Stop the Chronic Pain

Stop Eating This and Stop the Chronic Pain

Do you sometimes feel like your chronic pain becomes worse after eating certain foods? As a matter of fact, research studies have demonstrated that eating several types of foods can trigger an inflammatory response in the human body. And we all know that inflammation can be one of the primary causes for your chronic pain flare-ups. Before we discuss the foods that can cause inflammation and the foods that can fight against inflammation, let’s discuss what is inflammation and how you can measure inflammation.

What is Inflammation?

Inflammation is the immune system’s natural defense mechanism. It functions by protecting the human body from injury, illness, and infection. Inflammation helps to maintain overall health and wellness. Allergic reactions can also result in inflammation. When you’re injured or you have an infection, you can see symptoms of inflammation: or swollen, red, and hot spots. However, inflammation may occur seemingly without a cause. The ideal way to diagnose inflammation is to measure specific biomarkers through blood tests.

The C-reactive protein, or CRP, a substance produced by the liver, is one of the best biomarkers of inflammation. CRP levels increase as inflammation increases, therefore, you can know a lot about what’s happening inside your own body by looking at your CRP levels. According to the American Heart Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a CRP concentration of under 1.0 mg/L suggests a low risk for heart issues; between 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L suggests an average risk for heart issues; and over 3.0 mg/L suggests a high risk for heart issues. Substantial levels of CRP (greater than 10 mg/L) may also suggest a risk of developing other health issues.

Other biomarkers like activated monocytes, cytokines, chemokines, various adhesion molecules, adiponectin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid alpha, are other biomarkers which can be measured through blood tests to diagnose inflammation. Inflammatory responses consist of sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production.

White blood cells play an important part in the human body’s immune system. Every time a bacteria or virus enters the bloodstream, the white blood cells, or leukocytes, recognize and destroy the foreign invaders. You might believe that an increased white blood cell count may be beneficial since white blood cells fight infection, however, this may not necessarily be the case. An increased white blood cell count may indicate the presence of another health issue, although a large white blood cell count is not a problem itself.

Foods that Cause Inflammation

Not surprisingly, the same types of foods which can cause inflammation are also generally considered to be bad for our health, such as refined carbohydrates, and sodas as well as red meat, and processed meats. Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism which has been associated with an increased risk for chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and heart disease, among other health issues.

Unhealthy foods also contribute to weight gain, which is itself a risk factor for inflammation. In several research studies, even after researchers took obesity into account, the connection between inflammation and these foods remained, which suggests that weight gain is not a cause of inflammation. Some foods have an increased effect on inflammation and increased caloric consumption.

Foods that can cause inflammation include:

  • Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and pastries
  • French fries and other fried foods
  • Sodas and other sugar-sweetened drinks
  • Red meat like burgers and steaks as well as processed meat like hot dogs and sausage
  • Margarine, shortening, and lard

Foods that Fight Against Inflammation

Alternatively, there are foods that fight against inflammation, and with it, chronic disease. Certain fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, apples, and leafy greens, are high in polyphenols and antioxidants, which are components that may have anti-inflammatory effects. Research studies also have associated nuts with reduced biomarkers of inflammation and a decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Coffee may protect against inflammation, as well. Choose anti-inflammatory foods and you could improve your overall health and wellness. Choose inflammatory foods and you might increase the risk of inflammation and chronic pain.

Foods that can fight against inflammation include:

  • Tomatoes
  • Olive oil
  • Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, kale, and collards
  • Nuts like almonds and walnuts
  • Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines
  • Fruits like strawberries, blueberries, cherries, and oranges
Dr Jimenez White Coat

Healthcare professionals are learning that one of the greatest ways to reduce inflammation is found. not in the medicine cabinet, but in the refrigerator. An anti-inflammatory diet can ultimately help reduce the human body’s inflammatory response. The immune system triggers inflammation to protect the human body from injury, illness, and infection. But if inflammation continues, it can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. Research studies have demonstrated that certain food can influence the effects of inflammation in the human body.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Anti-Inflammatory Diets

To reduce inflammation, focus on following an overall healthier diet. If you’re looking for an anti-inflammatory diet, consider following the Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish, and oils. The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, also eliminates foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. Fasting, or caloric restriction, has long been known to decrease oxidative stress and slow down the mechanisms of aging in various organisms.

the-longevity-diet-book-new.png

And if fasting is not for you, Dr. Valter Longo’s longevity diet plan also includes the fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, which allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness as well as to help reduce inflammation and chronic pain.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, Dr. Valter Longo offers the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled to serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program consists of ready-to-eat and easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. However, before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a doctor to find out which chronic pain treatment is right for you.

ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet Banner

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In addition to reducing inflammation, a more natural, less processed diet can have noticeable effects on your physical and emotional health. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Green Call Now Button H .png

Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

Fasting and Chronic Pain

Fasting and Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is a common health issue which affects many people in the United States. While several medical conditions, such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome, can cause chronic pain, it may also develop due to a variety of other health issues. Research studies have found that widespread inflammation is the leading cause of chronic pain. Inflammation is a natural defense mechanism to injury, illness, or infection. But, if the inflammatory process continues for too long, it can become problematic.

Inflammation signals the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue as well as to protect itself against bacteria and viruses. As mentioned above, however, chronic inflammation can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. Healthy lifestyle modifications can help manage chronic pain, but first, let’s understand the common causes of chronic pain.

What is Acute Inflammation?

Acute inflammation, by way of instance, occurs following an injury or something as simple as a sore throat. It is a natural response with adverse effects, meaning it works locally in the region where the health issue is found. The common signs of acute inflammation include swelling, redness, warmth, pain and loss of function, as stated by the National Library of Medicine. When acute inflammation develops, the blood vessels dilate causing blood flow to increase, and white blood cells in the injured region promote recovery.

During severe inflammation, compounds called cytokines are released by the damaged tissue. The cytokines act as “emergency signals” which bring on the human body’s own immune cells, as well as hormones and numerous nutrients to repair the health issue. Additionally, hormone-like substances, known as prostaglandins, cause blood clots to heal damaged tissue, and these may also trigger fever and pain as part of the inflammatory procedure. As the damage or injury recovers, the inflammation subsides.

What is Chronic Inflammation?

Unlike acute inflammation, chronic inflammation has long-term effects. Chronic inflammation, also known as persistent inflammation, produces low-levels of inflammation throughout the human body, as demonstrated by an increase in immune system markers located in blood and cell tissues. Chronic inflammation may also cause the progression of various diseases and conditions. Elevated levels of inflammation may sometimes trigger even if there is no injury, illness, or infection, which may also cause the immune system to react.

As a result, the human body’s immune system could begin attacking healthy cells, tissues, or organs. Researchers are still trying to understand the consequences of chronic inflammation in the human body and the mechanisms involved in this natural defense process. By way of instance, chronic inflammation has been associated with a variety of health issues, such as heart disease, and stroke.

One theory suggests that when inflammation remains in the blood vessels, it can encourage the accumulation of plaque. According to the American Heart Association, or the AHA, if the immune system identifies plaque as a foreign invader, the white blood cells can attempt to wall off the plaque found in the blood flowing through the arteries. This can create a blood clot which may block the blood flow to the heart or brain, causing it to become unstable and rupture. Cancer is another health issue associated with chronic inflammation. Furthermore, according to the National Cancer Institute, DNA damage can also be caused by chronic inflammation.

Persistent, low-grade inflammation frequently doesn’t have any symptoms, but healthcare professionals can check for a C-reactive protein, or CRP, known as lipoic acid, a marker for inflammation found in the blood. Elevated levels of CRP are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevated CRP levels may be found in chronic disorders like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

In the case of other chronic conditions, such as fibromyalgia, the nervous system over-reacts to specific stimulation, however, it’s inflammation which causes chronic pain symptoms. Subjectively, it’s almost impossible to tell the difference between the chronic pain caused by an oversensitive nervous system and the chronic pain caused by widespread inflammation. Apart from searching for clues in the bloodstream, a person’s nutrition, lifestyle habits, and environmental exposures, can also promote chronic inflammation.

Dr Jimenez White Coat

Inflammation is the immune system’s natural defense mechanism against injury, illness, or infection. While this inflammatory response can help heal and repair tissues, chronic, widespread inflammation can cause a variety of health issues, including chronic pain symptoms. A balanced nutrition, including a variety of diets and fasting, can help reduce inflammation. Fasting, also known as caloric restriction, promotes cell apoptosis and mitochondrial recovery. The fasting mimicking diet, which is a part of the longevity diet plan, is a dietary program which “tricks” the human body into a fasting state to experience the benefits of traditional fasting. Before following any of the diets described in this article, make sure to consult a doctor.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet Banner

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Nutrition, Diets, Fasting and Chronic Pain

Anti-inflammatory diets mainly consist of eating fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, and fats. The Mediterranean diet plan, by way of instance, is an anti-inflammatory diet which promotes eating moderate amounts of nuts, ingesting very little meat, and drinking wine. Anti-inflammatory food parts, such as omega-3 fatty acids, protect the human body against the damage brought on by inflammation.

An anti-inflammatory diet also involves staying away from foods which could promote inflammation. It is ideal to decrease the amount of foods you eat which are high in trans and saturated fats, such as meats. Additionally, an anti-inflammatory diet limits the consumption of refined carbohydrates and foods, such as bread and rice. These also promote cutting back on the utilization of margarine and oils that are packed with omega-6 fatty acids, such as sunflower, safflower and corn oils.

Fasting, or caloric restriction, has long been known to decrease oxidative stress and slow down the mechanisms of aging in various organisms. The effects of fasting involve programmed cell death, or apoptosis, transcription, mobile energy efficiency, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant mechanisms, and circadian rhythm. Fasting also contributes to mitochondrial autophagy, known as mitophagy, where genes in the mitochondria are stimulated to undergo apoptosis, which promotes mitochondrial recovery.

Intermittent fasting can help you fight inflammation, improve digestion, and boost your longevity. The human body is designed to be able to survive for extended periods of time without food. Research studies have demonstrated that intermittent fasting can have positive changes in the overall composition of your gut microbiota. Moreover, intermittent fasting can reduce insulin resistance while increasing the immune system response. Finally, intermittent fasting can promote the production of a substance, known as β-hydroxybutyrate, that blocks a portion of the immune system involved in inflammatory ailments as well as substantially reducing the production of inflammatory markers, such as cytokines and the C-reactive protein, or CRP, previously mentioned above.

The Longevity Diet Plan, presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, eliminates the consumption of processed foods which can cause inflammation, promoting well-being and longevity. This unique dietary program, unlike most traditional diets, doesn’t promote weight loss. Although you may experience weight reduction, the emphasis of this unique dietary program is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help activate stem cell-based renewal, reduce abdominal fat, and prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, as well as build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cancer.

the-longevity-diet-book-new.png

The fasting mimicking diet, or FMD, allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to help promote overall health and wellness.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day, that serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, or any of the lifestyle modifications described above, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out which chronic pain treatment is right for you.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Green Call Now Button H .png

Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

Xymogen Formulas - El Paso, TX

XYMOGEN’s Exclusive Professional Formulas are available through select licensed health care professionals. The internet sale and discounting of XYMOGEN formulas are strictly prohibited.

Proudly, Dr. Alexander Jimenez makes XYMOGEN formulas available only to patients under our care.

Please call our office in order for us to assign a doctor consultation for immediate access.

If you are a patient of Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic, you may inquire about XYMOGEN by calling 915-850-0900.

xymogen el paso, tx

For your convenience and review of the XYMOGEN products please review the following link.*XYMOGEN-Catalog-Download

* All the above XYMOGEN policies remain strictly in force.

***

Rejuvenate With ProLon’s® FMD

Rejuvenate With ProLon’s® FMD

Rejuvenate

The ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet comes with benefits that far surpass other types of diets!

These benefits come from a proprietary mixture of micro and macro-nutrients that work together putting your body into a fasting state while nourishing you for a safe fast that also helps maintain energy levels. You can expect to experience a leaner, more energetic version of yourself.

rejuvenate yourself from within el paso tx.

What To Expect

Fasting State: ProLon is designed to prime your body to transition into a fasting state so it can begin cellular recycling.

Fat Burning: ProLon guides your body to switch to a fat burning state. Cellular clean up (autophagy) begins.

Cellular Recycling: Many people reach a degree of the fat burning metabolic state known as full ketosis.

Cell Regeneration: Autophagy continues and stem cell-based regeneration is ramping up.

Regeneration Continues: Cellular renewal along with the body continue enhancement.

Benefits Continue After The 5 Days

Stem cell-Proliferation begins and continues for up to 5 days after you complete the ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet and return to a regular healthy diet.

rejuvenate yourself from within el paso tx.

This program was specifically designed knowing people had to be able to stick with it for the full 5-days, which means it has to taste good and fill you up.

ProLon FMD works because:

Designed by professional Italian chefs

Uses the Fasting Mimicking Diet technology

Enjoyable taste, texture, and leaves you feeling satisfied

Get the full benefits of a long fast without giving up food, going too hungry, or quitting early with ProLon.

What is the Longevity Diet Plan?

What is the Longevity Diet Plan?

Adhering to a specific diet to maintain proper nutrition can sometimes make eating stressful. Natural lifestyle modifications are the key to changing your eating habits and this can help you live a longer, healthier life. The Longevity Diet Plan, created by Dr. Valter Longo, is a selection of practical eating guidelines which focuses on changing your eating patterns to achieve overall health and wellness.

The Rules of The Longevity Diet Plan

By merely following the nutritional tips below, you can overhaul your current diet plan and start eating healthier without all the stress of a traditional diet. The Longevity Diet Plan eliminates the consumption of processed foods that can cause a variety of health issues and boosts the consumption of nutrients that promote longevity. This unique dietary program shares the results of approximately 25 years of research studies all on a simple solution which can help people experience overall well-being through proper nutrition.

However, unlike most traditional diets, the Longevity Diet Plan doesn’t promote weight loss. Although you may experience weight reduction, the emphasis of this unique dietary program is on eating healthier. The Longevity Diet Plan has been demonstrated to help you activate stem cell-based renewal, lose weight and reduce abdominal fat, prevent age-related bone and muscle loss, build resistance to developing cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cancer, as well as extend longevity. Below, we will summarize the 8 most common nutritional tips of the Longevity Diet Plan which can ultimately help make your life longer and healthier.

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The Longevity Diet Plan is a unique dietary program designed by Dr. Valter Longo to promote overall health, wellness, and longevity. Through simple lifestyle modifications, people can change their eating habits and take advantage of the many health benefits of this dietary program. By following a pescatarian diet and following the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet, among the other nutritional tips described below, people can live longer and healthier lives. Traditional diets can often be difficult and stressful to follow, however, the Longevity Diet Plan is a practical and unique dietary program which can be suitable for many people.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

8 Nutritional Tips of the Longevity Diet Plan

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Follow a Pescatarian Diet

As a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, follow a pescatarian diet, which is almost 100 percent plant and fish-based. Also, make sure to limit fish consumption to two or three servings every week, avoiding fish with higher mercury content, such as tuna, swordfish, mackerel, and halibut. If you’re over 65 and you begin to experience reduced muscle mass, strength, and fat, add more fish into your diet alongside other animal-based foods, including eggs and specific cheeses, such as feta or pecorino, and yogurt made from goat’s milk.

Don’t Eat Too Much Protein

According to the Longevity Diet Plan, we should eat 0.31 to 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body fat every day. If you weigh 130lbs, you should eat about 40 to 47 grams of protein per day, or an equivalent of 1.5 filets of salmon, 1 cup of chickpeas or 2 1/2 cups of lentils, of which 30 grams should be consumed in one meal. If you weigh 200 to 220lbs, you should eat about 60 to 70 grams of protein per day, or an equivalent of two fillets of salmon, 3 1/2 cups of lentils or 1 1/2 cups of chickpeas. Protein consumption should be increased after age 65. For the majority of us, a 10 to 20 percent increase, or 5 to 10 grams more each day, is enough. Finally, the Longevity Diet is free of animal proteins like red meat, white meat, and poultry, with the exception of animal proteins in fish. This unique dietary program instead is comparatively high in vegetable proteins like legumes and nuts to optimize health and wellness.

Increase Good Fats and Complex Carbohydrates

As a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, you should eat higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in salmon, almonds, walnuts, and olive oil, while you should eat lower amounts of saturated, hydrogenated, and trans fats. Likewise, as a part of the Longevity Diet Plan, you should also eat complex carbohydrates, such as those found in whole wheat bread, legumes, and vegetables. Make sure to limit eating pasta, rice, bread, fruit, and fruit juices, which can be converted to sugars by the time they reach your gut.

Take Dietary Supplements

The human body needs proteins, essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6, vitamins, minerals, and even sugars to function correctly. Whenever your intake of certain nutrients becomes too low, the repair, replacement, and defense methods of the human body can slow down or stop, allowing fungi, bacteria, and viruses to cause damage which can lead to a variety of health issues. Take vitamin and mineral dietary supplements, especially for omega-3, as recommended by your healthcare professional.

Eat Various Foods from your Ancestry

To take in all of the necessary nutrients you need, you have to eat a wide variety of foods, but it’s best to choose foods that were common on your parents’, grandparents’, and great-grandparents’ table. By way of instance, in many northern European countries where milk has been generally consumed, lactose intolerance is relatively rare, whereas lactose intolerance is quite common in southern European and Asian countries, where milk was not historically part of the conventional diet of adults. If a person of Japanese ancestry residing in the United States suddenly decides to begin drinking milk, which was probably rarely served in their grandparents’ dining table, they will probably start feeling sick. The most common problems in these cases are intolerances or autoimmunities, such as the response to gluten-rich foods like bread and pasta seen in people with celiac disease. Although further evidence is needed, it is possible that food intolerances could be related to many autoimmune disorders, including diabetes, colitis, and Crohn’s disease.

Eat Two Meals a Day and a Snack

According to the Longevity Diet Plan, it is ideal to eat breakfast and one major meal plus a nourishing low-calorie, low-sugar snack every day. While for some people it may be recommended to eat three meals and a snack every day. Many nutritional guidelines recommend that we should eat five to six meals every day. When people are advised to eat frequently, it can often become difficult for them to regulate their calorie intake. Over the last twenty years, approximately 70 percent of the population in the United States is considered to be overweight or obese. It’s much more difficult to overeat on the Longevity Diet Plan if you eat only two and a half meals every day. It would take massive portions of legumes, vegetables, and fish to reach the amount that would lead to weight gain. The high nourishment of the meals, plus the amount of the meal, sends a signal to your stomach and your brain that you have had enough food. This one major meal system may sometimes have to be broken down into two meals to avoid digestion issues. Adults and older people prone to weight loss should eat three meals a day. For people trying to lose weight as well as for people who are overweight or obese, the best nutritional advice would be to eat breakfast daily; have dinner or lunch, but not both, and substitute for the missed meal with one snack containing fewer than 100 calories and no more than 3 to 5 g of sugar. Which meal you skip depends upon your lifestyle, however, it’s not recommended to skip breakfast due to its adverse health issues. The benefit of skipping lunch is more free time and energy. But, there is a drawback for eating a large dinner, particularly for people who suffer from acid reflux or sleeping problems. The drawback for skipping dinner, however, is that it may eliminate the social meal of their day.

Eat Within a 12-Hour Window Every Day

Another common eating habit adopted by many centenarians is time-restricted eating or limiting all meals and snacks within a 12-hour window every day. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated in both human and animal research studies. Generally, you would eat breakfast at 8 a.m. and then eat dinner by 8 p.m.. A briefer eating window of ten hours or less can be even better for weight loss, but it’s considerably harder to maintain and it might increase the risk of developing side effects, such as gallstones and even potentially increasing the chance of developing cardiovascular disease. You should not eat three to four hours before sleeping.

Follow the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet

Healthy people under the age of 65 should follow the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet, 5-day meal program at least twice every year. The FMD is one of the key principles promoted by the Longevity Diet Plan. The fasting mimicking diet offers the same health benefits of fasting without actually fasting. By eating 800 to 1,100 calories in precise quantities and combinations of foods which have been individually packed and labeled for each day, you can “trick” the human body into a fasting state. Through various research studies, Dr. Valter Longo discovered that by depriving the body of food in this manner, our cells begin breaking down and regenerating our internal tissues, through a process known as autophagy, killing and replacing, or regenerating, damaged cells. Additionally, fasting can reverse various health issues, destroy cancer cells and significantly reduce the possibility of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

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With the Longevity Diet Plan presented in the book by Dr. Valter Longo, you’ll eat better, feel better and, although it’s not designed as a weight loss plan, you may even shed a few pounds. You’re not going to have to consider complex food rules and make difficult choices with this unique dietary program. Once you get the hang of these lifestyle modifications, you’ll be able to improve your overall health and wellness as well as your longevity. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine topics. To further discuss the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

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ProLon® Can Support Your Health | El Paso, Tx.

ProLon® Can Support Your Health | El Paso, Tx.

The Program

Fasting To Empower Health

A State of Continuous Eating

Fasting, What Is It?

  • Fasting: To abstain from food and beverage
  • Biological Fasting:
  • To not consume food that triggers cellular Food Sensing Pathways: PKA, IGF-1 & mTOR
  • Sensing Pathways are triggered up to 24 hours after the last meal
  • Biological fasting begins 24 hours from your last meal
  • Misconceptions
  • “Juice fasting is considered fasting because it does not contain solid food”

Fasting: Part of A Healthy Human Diet, Which Has Been Lost

Optimize The Body Through Fasting

USC Dr. Longo pioneered the research characterizing nutrient sensing pathways

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Dr. Longo

  • Longevity Institute at the USC School of Gerontology focuses on fundamental mechanisms of aging
  • Demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies that the IGF-1, TOR, and PKA pathways are closely related to aging
  • Elevation of these nutrient-sensing pathways accelerates aging processes
  • IGF-1 has been associated with the longest living human populations (centenarians)
  • Source: Aging cell, volume 13, issue 4

IGF-1 has been associated with the longest living human populations (centenarians) Source: Aging cell, volume 13, issue 4

Fasting Types

Ketogenic Diet and Intermittent Fasting | El Paso, Tx Chiropractor
  • Time Restricted Eating/Feeding (TRE/TRF)
  • Daily pattern of eating during a window of 8 to 12 hours
  • Intermittent Fasting (IF)
  • 1-3 days of fasting, usually non-consecutive
  • Per week
  • Prolonged Fasting (PF)
  • 4 or more consecutive days of fasting
  • Water Only Fasting
  • Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD)

The Impact Of Fasting

Prolonged Fasting & Water Only Fasting Benefits:

Water Only Fasting Disadvantages:

USC developed the Fasting while Eating Food Concept Known As The Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD)

The Fasting Mimicking Diet

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  • Natural, plant-based nutrition technology that mimics fasting for 5 days
  • All this while providing the body with nutrition
  • Stomach sees food, while the cells believe fasting is taking place
  • Consists of
  • Soups
  • Bars
  • Teas
  • Drinks
  • Snacks
  • Supplements
  • Fasting becomes more practical
  • No lifestyle changes required
  • FMD induces fast fat loss without decreasing lean body mass
  • Maintains healthy metabolism

FMD & Nutrition Breakthrough

FMD Hits All the Important Factors of a Breakthrough Product

  1. Plant-based
  2. All Natural
  3. Backed by NIH and major grantors
  4. University-based Research & Development
  5. Preclinical
  6. Clinical trials
  7. Patented and innovative (21 filed patents, 5 issued)
  8. Published in top medical journals (Science Translational Medicine, JAMA, etc.)

Top Research Organizations

Healthy Weight Loss From Fasting

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ProLon® has clinically shown to help people with a normal Body Mass Index reading. To lose an average of 5.lbs of fat and 1.2 inches off waist circumference. While overweight/obese individuals lost >8lbs. This is with visceral fat reduction all the while protecting Lean Body Mass.

Biological Effects

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FMD Benefits

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Results

  • Rejuvenation
  • Wellness
  • Health Optimization
  • Clinically studied to promote
  • Healthspan
  • Longevity

Weight Management

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  • A Fast way to lose weight
  • Most loss is circumferential fat
  • Preserve lean body mass (muscle and bone)
  • Only 5 days of lifestyle change per month
  • For three months

Health

Promotes Healthy Levels of C-Reactive Protein

This Is An Inflammation marker

Maintain Healthy Levels:

  1. Glucose
  2. Cholesterol
  3. Blood Pressure
  4. Triglycerides

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = Major Elements of Metabolic Health

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = Major Determinants of Metabolic Health

Enhancement Of Patient Well-Being:

  • Trial Participants reported:
  • Improvement in energy levels
  • Empowered to make healthier choices in life
  • Positive impact on lifestyle
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Senior caucasian man go for a walk with bike in countryside. He is happy and active.

FMD Benefits

FMD Top Media Articles

Fasting The #1 Diet in the United States for 2018

Source: Mattson MP, Longo VD, Harvie M. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Oct;39:46-58. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.10.005. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Instruction on taking the Fast Mimicking Diet In English or Spanish

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Fasting Mimicking Diet Explained

Fasting Mimicking Diet Explained

Understanding the ProLon® Fasting Mimicking Diet

Fasting is associated with numerous health benefits; from weight loss to longevity. There are many different types of fasting methods, such as intermittent fasting. The fasting mimicking diet allows you to experience the benefits of traditional fasting without depriving your body of food. The main difference of the FMD is that instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks, you only restrict your calorie intake for five days out of the month. The FMD can be practiced once a month to promote well-being.

While anyone can follow the FMD on their own, the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled for each day and it serves the foods you need for the FMD in precise quantities and combinations. The meal program is made up of ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare, plant-based foods, including bars, soups, snacks, supplements, a drink concentrate, and teas. The products are scientifically formulated and great tasting. Before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional to find out if the FMD is right for you. The purpose of the research study below is to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of fasting in the FMD.

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Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions.

Introduction

In humans, fasting is achieved by ingesting no or minimal amounts of food and caloric beverages for periods that typically range from 12 hours to three weeks. Many religious groups incorporate periods of fasting into their rituals including Muslims who fast from dawn until dusk during the month of Ramadan, and Christians, Jews, Buddhists and Hindus who traditionally fast on designated days of the week or calendar year. In many clinics, patients are now monitored by physicians while undergoing water only or very low calorie (less than 200 kcal/day) fasting periods lasting from 1 week or longer for weight management, and for disease prevention and treatment. Fasting is distinct from caloric restriction (CR) in which the daily caloric intake is reduced chronically by 20–40%, but meal frequency is maintained. Starvation is instead a chronic nutritional insufficiency that is commonly used as a substitute for the word fasting, particularly in lower eukaryotes, but that is also used to define extreme forms of fasting, which can result in degeneration and death. We now know that fasting results in ketogenesis, promotes potent changes in metabolic pathways and cellular processes such as stress resistance, lipolysis and autophagy, and can have medical applications that in some cases are as effective as those of approved drugs such as the dampening of seizures and seizure-associated brain damage and the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis (Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Hartman et al., 2012; Muller et al., 2001). As detailed in the remainder of this article, findings from well-controlled investigations in experimental animals, and emerging findings from human studies, indicate that different forms of fasting may provide effective strategies to reduce weight, delay aging, and optimize health. Here we review the fascinating and potent effects of different forms of fasting including intermittent fasting (IF, including alternate day fasting, or twice weekly fasting, for example) and periodic fasting (PF) lasting several days or longer every 2 or more weeks. We focus on fasting and minimize the discussion of CR, a topic reviewed elsewhere (Fontana et al., 2010; Masoro, 2005).

Lessons from Simple Organisms

The remarkable effects of the typical 20–40% CR on aging and diseases in mice and rats are often viewed as responses evolved in mammals to adapt to periods of limited availability of food (Fontana and Klein, 2007; Fontana et al., 2010; Masoro, 2005; Weindruch and Walford, 1988). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the protective effects of CR have likely evolved billions of years earlier in prokaryotes attempting to survive in an environment largely or completely devoid of energy sources while avoiding age-dependent damage that could compromise fitness. In fact, E. coli switched from a nutrient rich broth to a calorie-free medium survive 4 times longer, an effect reversed by the addition of various nutrients but not acetate, a carbon source associated with starvation conditions (Figure 1A) (Gonidakis et al., 2010). The effect of rich medium but not acetate in reducing longevity raises the possibility that a ketone body-like carbon source such as acetate may be part of an “alternate metabolic program” that evolved billions of years ago in microorganisms and that now allows mammals to survive during periods of food deprivation by obtaining much of the energy by catabolizing fatty acids and ketone bodies including acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (Cahill, 2006).

In the yeast S. cerevisiae, switching cells from standard growth medium to water also causes a consistent 2-fold chronological lifespan extension as well as a major increase in the resistance to multiple stresses (Figure 1B) (Longo et al., 1997; Longo et al., 2012). The mechanisms of food deprivation-dependent lifespan extension involve the down-regulation of the amino acid response Tor-S6K (Sch9) pathway as well as of the glucose responsive Ras-adenylate cyclase-PKA pathway resulting in the activation of the serine/threonine kinase Rim15, a key enzyme coordinating the protective responses (Fontana et al., 2010). The inactivation of Tor-S6K, Ras-AC-PKA and activation of Rim15 result in increased transcription of genes including superoxide dismutases and heat shock proteins controlled by stress responsive transcription factors Msn2, Msn4 and Gis1, required for the majority of the protective effects caused by food deprivation (Wei et al., 2008). Notably, when switched to food deprivation conditions, both bacteria and yeast enter a hypometabolic mode that allows them to minimize the use of reserve carbon sources and can also accumulate high levels of the ketone body-like acetic acid, analogously to mammals.

Another major model organism in which fasting extends lifespan is the nematode C. elegans. Food deprivation conditions achieved by feeding worms little or no bacteria, lead to a major increase in lifespan (Figure 1C) (Kaeberlein et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2006), which requires AMPK as well as the stress resistance transcription factor DAF-16, similarly to the role of transcription factors Msn2/4 and Gis1 in yeast and FOXOs in flies and mammals (Greer et al., 2007). Intermittent food deprivation also extends lifespan in C. elegans by a mechanism involving the small GTPase RHEB-1 (Honjoh et al., 2009).

In flies, most studies indicate that intermittent food deprivation does not affect lifespan (Grandison et al., 2009). However, food reduction or food dilution have been consistently shown to extend Drosophila longevity (Piper and Partridge, 2007) suggesting that flies can benefit from dietary restriction but may be sensitive to even short starvation periods.

Together these results indicate that food deprivation can result in pro-longevity effects in a wide variety of organisms, but also underline that different organisms have different responses to fasting.

Adaptive Responses to Fasting in Mammals

In most mammals, the liver serves as the main reservoir of glucose, which is stored in the form of glycogen. In humans, depending upon their level of physical activity, 12 to 24 hours of fasting typically results in a 20% or greater decrease in serum glucose and depletion of the hepatic glycogen, accompanied by a switch to a metabolic mode in which non-hepatic glucose, fat-derived ketone bodies and free fatty acids are used as energy sources (Figures 2 and 3). Whereas most tissues can utilize fatty acids for energy, during prolonged periods of fasting, the brain relies on the ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in addition to glucose for energy consumption (Figure 3B). Ketone bodies are produced in hepatocytes from the acetyl-CoA generated from β oxidation of fatty acids released into the bloodstream by adipocytes, and also by the conversion of ketogenic amino acids. After hepatic glycogen depletion, ketone bodies, fat-derived glycerol, and amino acids account for the gluconeogenesis-dependent generation of approximately 80 grams/day of glucose, which is mostly utilized by the brain. Depending on body weight and composition, the ketone bodies, free fatty acids and gluconeogenesis allow the majority of human beings to survive 30 or more days in the absence of any food and allow certain species, such as king penguins, to survive for over 5 months without food (Eichhorn et al., 2011) (Figure 3C). In humans, during prolonged fasting, the plasma levels of 3-β-hydroxybutyrate are about 5 times those of free fatty acids and acetoacetic acid (Figure 3A and 3B). The brain and other organs utilize ketone bodies in a process termed ketolysis, in which acetoacetic acid and 3-β- hydroxybutyrate are converted into acetoacetyl-CoA and then acetyl-CoA. These metabolic adaptations to fasting in mammals are reminiscent of those described earlier for E. coli and yeast, in which acetic acid accumulates in response to food deprivation (Gonidakis et al., 2010; Longo et al., 2012). In yeast, glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, but not glycerol which is also generated during fasting from the breakdown of fats, accelerate aging (Fabrizio et al., 2005; Wei et al., 2009). Thus, glycerol functions as a carbon source that does not activate the pro-aging nutrient signaling pathways but can be catabolized by cells. It will be important to understand how the different carbon sources generated during fasting affect cellular protection and aging. and to determine whether glycerol, specific ketone bodies or fatty acids can provide nourishment while reducing cellular aging in mammals, a possibility suggested by beneficial effects of a dietary ketone precursor in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (Kashiwaya et al., 2012). It will also be important to study, in various model organisms and humans, how high intake of specific types of fats (medium- vs. long- chain fatty acids, etc.) in substitution of carbohydrates and proteins influences gluconeogenesis and glucose levels as well as aging and diseases.

Fasting and the Brain

In mammals, severe CR/food deprivation results in a decrease in the size of most organs except the brain, and the testicles in male mice (Weindruch and Sohal, 1997). From an evolutionary perspective this implies that maintenance of a high level of cognitive function under conditions of food scarcity is of preeminent importance. Indeed, a highly conserved behavioral trait of all mammals is to be active when hungry and sedentary when satiated. In rodents, alternating days of normal feeding and fasting (IF) can enhance brain function as indicated by improvements in performance on behavioral tests of sensory and motor function (Singh et al., 2012) and learning and memory (Fontan-Lozano et al., 2007). The behavioral responses to IF are associated with increased synaptic plasticity and increased production of new neurons from neural stem cells (Lee et al., 2002).

Particularly interesting with regards to adaptive responses of the brain to limited food availability during human evolution is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The genes encoding BDNF and its receptor TrkB appeared in genomes relatively recently as they are present in vertebrates, but absent from worms, flies and lower species (Chao, 2000). The prominent roles of BDNF in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure in mammals is highlighted by the fact that the receptors for both BDNF and insulin are coupled to the highly conserved PI3 kinase – Akt, and MAP kinase signaling pathways (Figure 4). Studies of rats and mice have shown that running wheel exercise and IF increase BDNF expression in several regions of the brain, and that BDNF in part mediates exercise- and IF-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuronal resistance to injury and disease (see sections on fasting and neurodegeneration below). BDNF signaling in the brain may also mediate behavioral and metabolic responses to fasting and exercise including regulation of appetite, activity levels, peripheral glucose metabolism and autonomic control of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems (Mattson, 2012a, b; Rothman et al., 2012).

Hunger is an adaptive response to food deprivation that involves sensory, cognitive and neuroendocrine changes which motivate and enable food seeking behaviors. It has been proposed that hunger-related neuronal networks, neuropeptides and hormones play pivotal roles in the beneficial effects of energy restriction on aging and disease susceptibility. As evidence, when mice in which the hypothalamic ‘hunger peptide’ NPY is selectively ablated are maintained on a CR diet, the ability of CR to suppress tumor growth is abolished (Shi et al., 2012). The latter study further showed that the ability of CR to elevate circulating adiponectin levels was also compromised in NPY-deficient mice, suggesting a key role for the central hunger response in peripheral endocrine adaptations to energy restriction. Adiponectin levels increase dramatically in response to fasting; and data suggest roles for adiponectin in the beneficial effects of IF on the cardiovascular system (Wan et al., 2010). The hunger response may also improve immune function during aging as ghrelin-deficient mice exhibit accelerated thymic involution during aging, and treatment of middle age mice with ghrelin increases thymocyte numbers and improves the functional diversity of peripheral T cell subsets (Peng et al., 2012). In addition to its actions on the hypothalamus and peripheral endocrine cells, fasting may increase neuronal network activity in brain regions involved in cognition, resulting in the production of BDNF, enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved stress tolerance (Rothman et al., 2012). Thus, hunger may be a critical factor involved in widespread central and peripheral adaptive responses to the challenge of food deprivation for extended time periods.

Fasting, Aging, and Disease in Rodent Models

Different Fasting Methods and Aging

The major differences between IF and PF in mice are the length and the frequency of the fast cycles. IF cycles usually last 24 hours and are one to a few days apart, whereas PF cycles last 2 or more days and are at least 1 week apart, which is necessary for mice to regain their normal weight. One difference in the molecular changes caused by different fasting regimes is the effect on a variety of growth factors and metabolic markers, with IF causing more frequent but less pronounced changes than PF. It will be important to determine how the frequency of specific changes such as the lowering of IGF-1 and glucose affect cellular protection, diseases and longevity. The most extensively investigated IF method in animal studies of aging has been alternate day fasting (food is withdrawn for 24 hours on alternate days, with water provided ad libitum) (Varady and Hellerstein, 2007). The magnitude of the effects of alternate day fasting on longevity in rodents depends upon the species and age at regimen initiation, and can range from a negative effect to as much as an 80% lifespan extension (Arum et al., 2009; Goodrick et al., 1990). IF every other day extended the lifespan of rats more than fasting every 3rd or 4th day (Carlson and Hoelzel, 1946). Fasting for 24 hours twice weekly throughout adult life resulted in a significant increase in lifespan of black-hooded rats (Kendrick, 1973). In rats, the combination of alternate day fasting and treadmill exercise resulted in greater maintenance of muscle mass than did IF or exercise alone (Sakamoto and Grunewald, 1987). Interestingly, when rats were maintained for 10 weeks on a PF diet in which they fasted 3 consecutive days each week, they were less prone to hypoglycemia during 2 hours of strenuous swimming exercise as a result of their accumulation of larger intramuscular stores of glycogen and triglycerides (Favier and Koubi, 1988). Several major physiological responses to fasting are similar to those caused by regular aerobic exercise including increased insulin sensitivity and cellular stress resistance, reduced resting blood pressure and heart rate, and increased heart rate variability as a result of increased parasympathetic tone (Figure 2) (Anson et al., 2003; Mager et al., 2006; Wan et al., 2003). Emerging findings suggest that exercise and IF retard aging and some age-related diseases by shared mechanisms involving improved cellular stress adaptation (Stranahan and Mattson, 2012). However, in two different mouse genetic backgrounds, IF did not extend mean lifespan and even reduced lifespan when initiated at 10 months (Goodrick et al., 1990). When initiated at 1.5 months, IF either increased longevity or had no effect (Figure 1D) (Goodrick et al., 1990). These results in rodents point to conserved effects of fasting on lifespan, but also to the need for a much better understanding of the type of fasting that can maximize its longevity effects and the mechanisms responsible for the detrimental effects that may be counterbalancing its anti-aging effects. For example, one possibility is that fasting may be consistently protective in young and middle aged laboratory rodents that are either gaining or maintaining a body weight, but may be detrimental in older animals that, similarly to humans, begin to lose weight prior to their death. Notably, whereas bacteria, yeast and humans can survive for several weeks or more without nutrients, most strains of mice are unable to survive more than 3 days without food. The age-dependent weight loss may make this sensitivity to long periods of fasting worse.

Fasting and Cancer

Fasting can have positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. In mice, alternate day fasting caused a major reduction in the incidence of lymphomas (Descamps et al., 2005) and fasting for 1 day per week delayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice (Berrigan et al., 2002). However, the major decrease in glucose, insulin and IGF-1 caused by fasting, which is accompanied by cell death and/or atrophy in a wide range of tissues and organs including the liver and kidneys, is followed by a period of abnormally high cellular proliferation in these tissues driven in part by the replenishment of growth factors during refeeding. When combined with carcinogens during refeeding, this increased proliferative activity can actually increase carcinogenesis and/or pre-cancerous lesions in tissues including liver and colon (Tessitore et al., 1996). Although these studies underline the need for an in depth understanding of its mechanisms of action, fasting is expected to have cancer preventive effects as indicated by the studies above and by the findings that multiple cycles of periodic fasting can be as effective as toxic chemotherapy in the treatment of some cancers in mice (Lee et al., 2012).

In the treatment of cancer, fasting has been shown to have more consistent and positive effects. PF for 2–3 days was shown to protect mice from a variety of chemotherapy drugs, an effect called differential stress resistance (DSR) to reflect the inability of cancer cells to become protected based on the role of oncogenes in negatively regulating stress resistance, thus rendering cancer cells, by definition, unable to become protected in response to fasting conditions (Figure 5) (Raffaghello et al., 2008). PF also causes a major sensitization of various cancer cells to chemo-treatment, since it fosters an extreme environment in combination with the stress conditions caused by chemotherapy. In contrast to the protected state entered by normal cells during fasting, cancer cells are unable to adapt, a phenomenon called differential stress sensitization (DSS), based on the notion that most mutations are deleterious and that the many mutations accumulated in cancer cells promote growth under standard conditions but render them much less effective in adapting to extreme environments (Lee et al., 2012). In mouse models of metastatic tumors, combinations of fasting and chemotherapy that cause DSR and DSS, result in 20 to 60% cancer-free survival compared to the same levels of chemotherapy or fasting alone, which are not sufficient to cause any cancer-free survival (Lee et al., 2012; Shi et al., 2012). Thus, the idea that cancer could be treated with weeks of fasting alone, made popular decades ago, may be only partially true, at least for some type of cancers, but is expected to be ineffective for other types of cancers. The efficacy of long-term fasting alone (2 weeks or longer) in cancer treatment will need to be tested in carefully designed clinical trials in which side effects including malnourishment and possibly a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to certain infections are carefully monitored. By contrast, animal data from multiple laboratories indicate that the combination of fasting cycles with chemotherapy is highly and consistently effective in enhancing chemotherapeutic index and has high translation potential. A number of ongoing trials should soon begin to determine the efficacy of fasting in enhancing cancer treatment in the clinic.

Fasting and Neurodegeneration

Compared to ad libitum-fed controls, rats and mice maintained on an IF diet exhibit less neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and fewer clinical symptoms in models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). These models include transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes that cause dominantly inherited AD (amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1) and frontotemporal lobe dementia (Tau) (Halagappa et al., 2007), PD (α-synuclein) (Griffioen et al., 2012) and HD (huntingtin) (Duan et al., 2003), as well as neurotoxin-based models pertinent to AD, PD and HD (Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Duan and Mattson, 1999). Animals on an IF diet also fare better than ad libitum-fed controls after acute injury including severe epileptic seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries (Arumugam et al., 2010; Bruce-Keller et al., 1999; Plunet et al., 2008).

Several interrelated cellular mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of IF on the nervous system including reduced accumulation of oxidatively damaged molecules, improved cellular bioenergetics, enhanced neurotrophic factor signaling, and reduced inflammation (Mattson, 2012a). The latter neuroprotective mechanisms are supported by studies showing that IF diets boost levels of antioxidant defenses, neurotrophic factors (BDNF and FGF2) and protein chaperones (HSP-70 and GRP-78), and reduce levels of pro- inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) (Figure 4) (Arumugam et al., 2010). IF may also promote restoration of damaged nerve cell circuits by stimulating synapse formation and the production of new neurons from neural stem cells (neurogenesis) (Lee et al., 2002). Interestingly, while beneficial in models of most neurodegenerative conditions, there is evidence that fasting can hasten neurodegeneration in some models of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, perhaps because the motor neurons affected in those models are unable to respond adaptively to the moderate stress imposed by fasting (Mattson et al., 2007; Pedersen and Mattson, 1999).

Fasting and the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MS), defined as abdominal adiposity, combined with insulin resistance, elevated triglycerides and/or hypertension, greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke and AD. Rats and mice maintained under the usual ad libitum feeding condition develop an MS-like phenotype as they age. MS can also be induced in younger animals by feeding them a diet high in fat and simple sugars (Martin et al., 2010). IF can prevent and reverse all aspects of the MS in rodents: abdominal fat, inflammation and blood pressure are reduced, insulin sensitivity is increased, and the functional capacities of the nervous, neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems are improved (Castello et al., 2010; Wan et al., 2003). Hyperglycemia is ameliorated by IF in rodent models of diabetes (Pedersen et al., 1999) and the heart is protected against ischemic injury in myocardial infarction models (Ahmet et al., 2005). A protective effect of fasting against ischemic renal and liver injury occurs rapidly, with 1 – 3 days of fasting improving functional outcome and reducing tissue injury and mortality (Mitchell et al., 2010). Six days on a diet missing just a single essential amino acid such as tryptophan can also elicit changes in metabolism and stress resistance, similar to those caused by fasting, which are dependent on the amino acid sensing kinase Gcn2 (Peng et al., 2012).

Multiple hormonal changes that typify MS in humans a re observed in rodents maintained on high fat and sugar diets including elevated levels of insulin and leptin and reduced levels of adiponectin and ghrelin. Elevated leptin levels are typically reflective of a pro- inflammatory state, whereas adiponectin and ghrelin can suppress inflammation and increase insulin sensitivity (Baatar et al., 2011; Yamauchi et al., 2001). Local inflammation in hypothalamic nuclei that control energy intake and expenditure may contribute to a sustained positive energy balance in MS (Milanski et al., 2012). Fasting results in a lowering of insulin and leptin levels and an elevation of adiponectin and ghrelin levels. By increasing insulin and leptin sensitivity, suppressing inflammation and stimulating autophagy, fasting reverses all the major abnormalities of the MS in rodents (Singh et al., 2009; Wan et al., 2010). Finally, in addition to its many effects on cells throughout the body and brain, IF may elicit changes in the gut microbiota that protect against MS (Tremaroli and Backhed, 2012). Naturally, the challenge of applying fasting-based interventions to treat MS in humans is a major one, as some obese individuals may have difficulties in following IF for long periods.

Dr Jimenez White Coat

The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet is a 5-day meal program consisting of scientifically developed and clinically tested, natural ingredients which “trick” the human body into a fasting mode. The FMD is low in carbohydrates as well as proteins and it’s high in fats. The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet promotes a variety of healthy benefits, including weight loss and decreased abdominal fat, all while preserving lead body mass, improved energy levels, softer and healthier looking skin, as well as overall health and wellness. The FMD can promote longevity.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Fasting, Aging, and Disease in Humans

Fasting and Factors Implicated in Aging

Clinical and epidemiological data are consistent wit h an ability of fasting to retard the aging process and associated diseases. Major factors implicated in aging whose generation are accelerated by gluttonous lifestyles and slowed by energy restriction in humans include: 1) oxidative damage to proteins, DNA and lipids; 2) inflammation; 3) accumulation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles; and 4) elevated glucose, insulin and IGF-I, although IGF-1decreases with aging and its severe deficiency can be associated with certain pathologies (Bishop et al., 2010; Fontana and Klein, 2007). Serum markers of oxidative damage and inflammation as well as clinical symptoms are reduced over a period of 2–4 weeks in asthma patients maintained on an alternate day fasting diet (Johnson et al., 2007). Similarly, when on a 2 days/week fasting diet overweight women at risk for breast cancer exhibited reduced oxidative stress and inflammation (Harvie et al., 2011) and elderly men exhibited reductions in body weight and body fat, and improved mood (Teng et al., 2011). Additional effects of fasting in human cells that can be considered as potentially ‘anti-aging’ are inhibition the mTOR pathway, stimulation of autophagy and ketogenesis (Harvie et al., 2011; Sengupta et al., 2010).

Among the major effects of fasting relevant to aging and diseases are changes in the levels of IGF-1, IGFBP1, glucose, and insulin. Fasting for 3 or more days causes a 30% or more decrease in circulating insulin and glucose, as well as rapid decline in the levels of insulin- like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the major growth factor in mammals, which together with insulin is associated with accelerated aging and cancer (Fontana et al., 2010). In humans, five days of fasting causes an over 60% decrease in IGF-1and a 5-fold or higher increase in one of the principal IGF-1-inhibiting proteins: IGFBP1 (Thissen et al., 1994a). This effect of fasting on IGF-1is mostly due to protein restriction, and particularly to the restriction of essential amino acids, but is also supported by calorie restriction since the decrease in insulin levels during fasting promotes reduction in IGF-1(Thissen et al., 1994a). Notably, in humans, chronic calorie restriction does not lead to a decrease in IGF-1unless combined with protein restriction (Fontana et al., 2008).

IF can be achieved in with a minimal decrease in overall calorie intake if the refeeding period in which subjects overeat is considered. Thus, fasting cycles provide a much more feasible strategy to achieve the beneficial effects of CR, and possibly stronger effects, without the burden of chronic underfeeding and some of the potentially adverse effects associated with weight loss or very low BMIs. In fact, subjects who are moderately overweight (BMI of 25–30) in later life can have reduced overall mortality risk compared to subjects of normal weight (Flegal et al., 2013). Although these results may be affected by the presence of many existing or developing pathologies in the low weight control group, they underline the necessity to differentiate between young individuals and elderly individuals who may use CR or fasting to reduce weight or delay aging. Although extreme dietary interventions during old age may continue to protect from age-related diseases, they could have detrimental effects on the immune system and the ability to respond to certain infectious diseases, wounds and other challenges (Kristan, 2008; Reed et al., 1996). However, IF or PF designed to avoid weight loss and maximize nourishment have the potential to have beneficial effects on infectious diseases, wounds and other insults even in the very old. Nourishment of subjects can be achieved by complementing IF or PF with micro- and macro Studies to test the effect of IF or PF regimens on markers of aging, cancer, cognition and obesity are in progress (V. Longo and M. Mattson).

Fasting and Cancer

Fasting has the potential for applications in both cancer prevention and treatment. Although no human data are available on the effect of IF or PF in cancer prevention, their effect on reducing IGF-1, insulin and glucose levels, and increasing IGFBP1 and ketone body levels could generate a protective environment that reduces DNA damage and carcinogenesis, while at the same time creating hostile conditions for tumor and pre-cancerous cells (Figure 5). In fact, elevated circulating IGF-1 is associated with increased risk of developing certain cancers (Chan et al., 2000; Giovannucci et al., 2000) and individuals with severe IGF-1deficiency caused by growth hormone receptor deficiency, rarely develop cancer (Guevara-Aguirre et al., 2011; Shevah and Laron, 2007; Steuerman et al., 2011). Furthermore, the serum from these IGF-1deficient subjects protected human epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, once their DNA became damaged, cells were more likely to undergo programmed cell death (Guevara-Aguirre et al., 2011). Thus, fasting may protect from cancer by reducing cellular and DNA damage but also by enhancing the death of pre-cancerous cells.

In a preliminary study of 10 subjects with a variety of malignancies, the combination of chemotherapy with fasting resulted in a decrease in a range of self-reported common side effects caused by chemotherapy compared to the same subjects receiving chemotherapy while on a standard diet (Safdie et al., 2009). The effect of fasting on chemotherapy toxicity and cancer progression is now being tested in clinical trials in both Europe and the US (0S-08-9, 0S-10-3).

Fasting and Neurodegeneration

Our current understanding of the impact of IF on the nervous system and cognitive functions is largely inferred from animal studies (see above). Interventional studies to determine the impact of fasting on brain function and neurodegenerative disease processes are lacking.

After 3–4 month, CR improved cognitive function (verbal memory) in overweight women (Kretsch et al., 1997) and in elderly subjects (Witte et al., 2009). Similarly, when subjects with mild cognitive impairment were maintained for 1 month on a low glycemic diet, they exhibited improved delayed visual memory, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Aβ metabolism and brain bioenergetics (Bayer-Carter et al., 2011). Studies in which cognitive function, regional brain volumes, neural network activity, and biochemical analyses of cerebrospinal fluid are measured in human subjects before and during an extended period of IF should clarify the impact of IF on human brain structure and function.

Fasting, Inflammation and Hypertension

In humans, one of the best demonstrations of the beneficial effects of long-term fasting lasting one to 3 weeks is in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In agreement with the results in rodents, there is little doubt that during the period of fasting both inflammation and pain are reduced in RA patients (Muller et al., 2001). However, after the normal diet is resumed, inflammation returns unless the fasting period is followed by a vegetarian diet (Kjeldsen-Kragh et al., 1991), a combination therapy that has beneficial effects lasting for two years or longer (Kjeldsen-Kragh et al., 1994). The validity of this approach is supported by four differently controlled studies, including two randomized trials (Muller et al., 2001). Therefore, fasting combined with a vegetarian diet and possibly with other modified diets provides beneficial effects in the treatment of RA. Alternate day IF also resulted in significant reductions in serum TNFα and ceramides in asthma patients during a 2 month period (Johnson et al., 2007). The latter study further showed that markers of oxidative stress often associated with inflammation (protein and lipid oxidation) were significantly reduced in response to IF. Thus, for many patients able and willing to endure long-term fasting and to permanently modify their diet, fasting cycles would have the potential to not only augment but also replace existing medical treatments.

Water only and other forms of long-term fasting have also been documented to have potent effects on hypertension. An average of 13 days of water only fasting resulted in the achievement of a systolic blood pressure (BP) below 120 in 82% of subjects with borderline hypertension with a mean 20 mm Hg reduction in BP (Goldhamer et al., 2002). BP remained significantly lower compared to baseline even after subjects resumed the normal diet for an average of 6 days (Goldhamer et al., 2002). A small pilot study of patients with hypertension (140 mm and above systolic BP) also showed that 10–11 days of fasting caused a 37–60 mm decrease in systolic BP (Goldhamer et al., 2001). These preliminary studies are promising but underscore the need for larger controlled and randomized clinical studies that focus on periodic fasting strategies that are feasible for a larger portion of the population.

For both hypertension and RA it will be important to develop PF mimicking diets that are as effective as the fasting regimens described above but that are also tolerable by the great majority of patients.

Fasting and the Metabolic Syndrome

Periodic fasting can reverse multiple features of the metabolic syndrome in humans: it enhances insulin sensitivity, stimulates lipolysis and reduces blood pressure. Body fat and blood pressure were reduced and glucose metabolism improved in obese subjects in response to an alternate day modified fast (Klempel et al., 2013; Varady et al., 2009). Overweight subjects maintained for 6 months on a twice weekly IF diet in which they consumed only 500–600 calories on the fasting days, lost abdominal fat, displayed improved insulin sensitivity and reduced blood pressure (Harvie et al., 2011). Three weeks of alternate day fasting resulted in reductions in body fat and insulin levels in normal weight men and women (Heilbronn et al., 2005) and Ramadan fasting (2 meals/day separated by approximately 12 hours) in subjects with MS resulted in decreased daily energy intake, decreased plasma glucose levels and increased insulin sensitivity (Shariatpanahi et al., 2008). Subjects undergoing coronary angiography who reported that they fasted regularly exhibited a lower prevalence of diabetes compared to non-fasters (Horne et al., 2012). Anti- metabolic syndrome effects of IF were also observed in healthy young men (BMI of 25) after 15 days of alternate day fasting: their whole-body glucose uptake rates increased significantly, levels of plasma ketone bodies and adiponectin were elevated, all of which occurred without a significant decrease in body weight (Halberg et al., 2005). The latter findings are similar to data from animal studies showing that IF can improve glucose metabolism even with little or no weight change (Anson et al., 2003). It will be important to determine if longer fasting periods which promote a robust switch to a fat breakdown and ketone body-based metabolism, can cause longer lasting and more potent effects.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on the existing evidence from animal and human studies described, we conclude that there is great potential for lifestyles that incorporate periodic fasting during adult life to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, particularly for those who are overweight and sedentary. Animal studies have documented robust and replicable effects of fasting on health indicators including greater insulin sensitivity, and reduced levels of blood pressure, body fat, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, atherogenic lipids and inflammation. Fasting regimens can ameliorate disease processes and improve functional outcome in animal models of disorders that include myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, AD and PD. One general mechanism of action of fasting is that it triggers adaptive cellular stress responses, which result in an enhanced ability to cope with more severe stress and counteract disease processes. In addition, by protecting cells from DNA damage, suppressing cell growth and enhancing apoptosis of damaged cells, fasting could retard and/ or prevent the formation and growth of cancers.

However, studies of fasting regimens have not been performed in children, the very old and underweight individuals, and it is possible that IF and PF would be harmful to these populations. Fasting periods lasting longer than 24 hours and particularly those lasting 3 or more days should be done under the supervision of a physician and preferably in a clinic. IF- and PF-based approaches towards combating the current epidemics of overweight, diabetes and related diseases should be pursued in human research studies and medical treatment plans. Several variations of potential ‘fasting prescriptions’ that have been adopted for overweight subjects revolve around the common theme of abstaining from food and caloric beverages for at least 12 – 24 hours on one or more days each week or month, depending on the length, combined with regular exercise. For those who are overweight, physicians could ask their patients to choose a fasting-based intervention that they believe they could comply with based upon their daily and weekly schedules. Examples include the ‘5:2’ IF diet (Harvie et al., 2011), the alternate day modified fasting diet (Johnson et al., 2007; Varady et al., 2009), a 4–5 day fast or low calorie but high nourishment fasting mimicking diets once every 1–3 months followed by the skipping of one major meal every day if needed (V. Longo, clinical trial in progress). One of the concerns with unbalanced alternating diets such as those in which low calorie intake is only observed for 2 days a week are the potential effects on circadian rhythm and the endocrine and gastrointestinal systems, which are known to be influenced by eating habits. During the first 4 – 6 weeks of implementation of the fasting regimen, a physician or registered dietitian should be in regular contact with the patient to monitor their progress and to provide advice and supervision.

Fasting regimens could also be tailored for specific diseases as stand-alone or adjunct therapies. Results of initial trials of IF (fasting 2 days per week or every other day) in human subjects suggest that there is a critical transition period of 3 – 6 weeks during which time the brain and body adapt to the new eating pattern and mood is enhanced (Harvie et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2007). Though speculative, it is likely that during the latter transition period brain neurochemistry changes so that the ‘addiction’ to regular consumption of food throughout the day is overcome. Notably, the various fasting approaches are likely to have limited efficacy particularly on aging and conditions other than obesity unless combined with diets such as the moderate calorie intake and mostly plant-based Mediterranean or Okinawa low protein diets (0.8 g protein/Kg of body weight), consistently associated with health and longevity.

In the future, it will be important to combine epidemiological data, studies of long-lived populations and their diets, results from model organisms connecting specific dietary components to pro-aging and pro-disease factors, with data from studies on fasting regimens in humans, to design large clinical studies that integrate fasting with diets recognized as protective and enjoyable. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which fasting affects various cell types and organ systems should lead to the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for a wide range of disorders.

Take Home Message

The fasting mimicking diet provides the same benefits of traditional fasting by restricting your calorie intake for five days out of the month instead of completely eliminating all food for several days or even weeks. The ProLon® fasting mimicking diet offers a 5-day meal program which has been individually packed and labeled in precise quantities and combinations for each day. Although the research study above has demonstrated the health benefits of fasting, please make sure to talk to a healthcare professional before starting the ProLon® fasting mimicking diet, 5-day meal program to find out if the FMD, or any other diet, is right for you.

The published, final edited form of the research study referenced above was made available in the NIH Public Access Author Manuscript on PMC February 4, 2015. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, spinal health issues, and functional medicine topics. To further discuss the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez

Referenced from: Nih.gov

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Additional Topic Discussion: Acute Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most prevalent causes of disability and missed days at work worldwide. Back pain attributes to the second most common reason for doctor office visits, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. Approximately 80 percent of the population will experience back pain at least once throughout their life. Your spine is a complex structure made up of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles, among other soft tissues. Injuries and/or aggravated conditions, such as herniated discs, can eventually lead to symptoms of back pain. Sports injuries or automobile accident injuries are often the most frequent cause of back pain, however, sometimes the simplest of movements can have painful results. Fortunately, alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care, can help ease back pain through the use of spinal adjustments and manual manipulations, ultimately improving pain relief.

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What Are The Biological Effects Of The ProLon® FMD | El Paso, Tx?

What Are The Biological Effects Of The ProLon® FMD | El Paso, Tx?

At El Paso Back Clinic, we want to help as many people as possible achieve optimal health, through the power of nutrition. The Fasting Mimicking Diet is the first and only clinically tested, scientific breakthrough in Fasting Mimicking technology that gives your body the stem cell-based rejuvenation of a 5-day fast while eating real food. Dr. Jimenez discusses the biological effects of the ProLon® fast mimicking diet (FMD).

biological effects prolon fmd diet, el paso, tx.

Day 1

Fasting State

  • Primes the body to transition into a fasting state
  • Begin cellular optimization
  • Enhance Performance: Feel greater focus, clarity, and energy, through the benefits of a leaner body.

Day 2

Fat Burning

  • The body switches to fat burning mode.
  • Cellular recycling and clean up (autophagy) begins
  • Fat Focused Weight Loss: Fastest way to lose fat (especially belly fat) while protecting lean body mass.

Day 3

Cellular Autophagy

  • Autophagy Continues
  • Full ketosis is reached
  • Enhance Cellular Renewal: Trigger stem cell-based regeneration and autophagy & promote stem cell-based renewal.

Day 4

Cell Regeneration

  • Autophagy continues
  • Stem-cell regeneration starts
  • Metabolic Health: Maintain healthy levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure, as well as markers of inflammation for overall wellness.

Day 5

Regeneration Continues

  • Stem-cell-based regeneration continues
  • Body is rejuvenated from within
  • Helps support the body’s natural functions to:
  • Enter into a protective and stress resistant mode
  • Remove damaged cells and tissues
  • Promote self-repair through cellular regeneration and rejuvenation

Meal Program

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Prolon® Offers Diet Coaching English/Spanish

Fasting: Awakening the Rejuvenation from Within | Valter Longo | TEDxEchoPark

An enlightening and provocative presentation is given by Valter Longo updating audience on the benefits of fasting for life-extension.

Dr. Valter Longo is the Edna M. Jones Professor of Gerontology and Biological Sciences, and Director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California – Davis School of Gerontology, Los Angeles. Dr. Longo’s studies focus on the fundamental mechanisms of aging in simple organisms, mice, and humans. The Longo laboratory has identified several genetic pathways that regulate aging in simple organisms and reduce the incidence of multiple diseases in mice and humans. His laboratory also described both dietary and genetic interventions that protect cells and improve the treatment and prevention of cancer and other diseases in mammals. He received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1997 and his postdoctoral training in the Neurobiology of Aging and Alzheimer’s Diseases at USC. He started his independent career in 2000 at the University of Southern California, School of Gerontology.

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