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Functional Medicine®

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Functional Medicine Explained

Functional Neurology: The Gut-Brain Connection in Parkinson’s Disease


Do you experience chronic gut health issues? Research studies have found that Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be associated with the gut-brain connection. Evidence in a group of mice demonstrated that PD can actually start in the gut, which may explain why patients with PD have constipation and other gut health issues. Scientists have also found that patients with Parkinson’s disease report having gut health issues up to 10 years before experiencing tremors and other symptoms. According to other research studies, patients with PD may even have different biodiversity of gut bacteria than other healthy adults.

Outcome measures in the group of mice showed that the “harmful” alpha-synuclein fibers that build-up in the nerve cell endings of patients with Parkinson’s disease can immediately affect neurons in the brain. Scientists found this by identifying the spread of alpha-synuclein fibers in the nerve cell endings of the affected neurons in the brain of patients with PD. Alpha-synuclein is a fat-soluble substance, generally found in healthy neurons, however, alpha-synuclein molecules can clump together and damage brain cells. Scientists also found that patients can have a build-up of alpha-synuclein fibers in their gut.

The Gut-Brain Connection

A collection of fibers, known as the vagus nerve, which starts in the brain stem and extends to the major organs, including the gut, is believed to be the main source of PD associated with the gut-brain connection. Recent research studies of vagotomy patients demonstrated a reduced risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Scientists have also found that alpha-synuclein fibers injected into the digestive system of a group of mice can reach the brain through the vagus nerve. If alpha-synuclein molecules can reach the brain from the gut, why does the fat-soluble substance build-up in the gut in the first place?

Scientists believe that alpha-synuclein develops in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to help combat pathogens and other “harmful” components. Michael Zasloff, a professor at Georgetown University, and his colleagues reported that alpha-synuclein molecules developed in healthy children after having an infection and alpha-synuclein seemed to trigger immune cells. Scientists also believe that alpha-synuclein can build-up in the GI tract due to the gut microbiome itself. Evidence in a group of mice demonstrated that bacteria can ultimately activate the development of alpha-synuclein in the gut and brain.

Research studies have started to understand how the gut microbiome may be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Scientists have found that patients with Parkinson’s disease have a unique biodiversity of gut bacteria and scientists have also found that fecal microbe transplants from patients into a group of mice may increase alpha-synuclein in the brain and worsen symptoms in patients with PD. Other research studies have also shown that alpha-synuclein molecules seem to trigger microglial cells. This substance may send a signal through the vagus nerve or penetrate it completely through the bloodstream.

Inflammation and Parkinson’s Disease

According to several research studies, inflammation caused by an abnormal gut microbiome may also cause the development of Parkinson’s disease. In one research study, Inga Peter, a genetic epidemiologist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and her colleagues analyzed the relationship between inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) and Parkinson’s disease. The analysis compared 144,018 participants with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease and 720,090 healthy controls where PD was 28 percent higher in people with IBS than in those in the control group, supporting previous research study findings.

Inflammation is believed to increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease because it may increase alpha-synuclein as well as increase intestinal and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Inflammation may also increase cytokines, molecules which can increase inflammation in the body. Moreover, an abnormal gut microbiome can also cause inflammation. However, because not all patients with Parkinson’s disease will have inflammatory bowel syndrome or any other gut health issues, further evidence is still required to determine how the gut-brain connection can ultimately be associated with PD.

If this is indeed true, however, it will allow scientists to develop new interventions for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease that targets the gut instead of the brain. Several research studies have already started to analyze the effects of these new interventions. In 2015, Michael Zasloff and his colleagues started a company, known as Enterin, which is currently testing a substance that decreases the development of alpha-synuclein molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although the treatment is intended to reduce constipation, the scientists hope that they will be able to prevent or even restore the effects of PD.

Although many research studies and evidence support the hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease may be much closely associated with the gut-brain axis than we thought, the question of how early the digestive system changes may occur is still unknown. Furthermore, other scientists still suggest that PD may start elsewhere in the body. “I believe that there’s possibly various sites of origin for Parkinson’s disease,” stated Viviane Labrie, a neuroscientist at the Van Andel Research Institute in Michigan. “For several people, it might be the gut while for several people, it might simply be something that occurs in the brain.”

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder that affects the central nervous system. PD can cause various, well-known symptoms, including tremors, slowed movements, stiffness, and loss of balance, among others. Research studies have demonstrated that nerve cell damage in the brain can decrease dopamine, a neurotransmitter and/or hormone, that can cause Parkinson’s disease. However, scientists have found that the gut-brain connection may ultimately be associated with PD. Inflammation caused by an abnormal gut microbiome as well as gut health issues like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is also believed to be one of the main factors for PD associated with the gut-brain connection. – Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez


  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “New Research Shows Parkinson’s Disease Origins in the Gut.” Medical Xpress – Medical Research Advances and Health News, Medical Xpress, 26 June 2019, medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-parkinson-disease-gut.html.
  • CureParkinsonsTrust. “New Evidence Suggests Parkinson’s Might Not Start in The Brain.” The Cure Parkinson’s Trust, 28 Nov. 2019, www.cureparkinsons.org.uk/news/parkinsons-starts-in-gut.
  • Kwon, Diana. “Does Parkinson’s Begin in the Gut?” Scientific American, Scientific American, 8 May 2018, www.scientificamerican.com/article/does-parkinsons-begin-in-the-gut/.

Neurotransmitter Assessment Form

Neurotransmitter Assessment Form AE260 (1)

The following Neurotransmitter Assessment Form can be filled out and presented to Dr. Alex Jimenez. The following symptoms listed on this form are not intended to be utilized as a diagnosis of any type of disease, condition, or any other type of health issue.

Additional Topic Discussion: Chronic Pain

Sudden pain is a natural response of the nervous system which helps to demonstrate possible injury. By way of instance, pain signals travel from an injured region through the nerves and spinal cord to the brain. Pain is generally less severe as the injury heals, however, chronic pain is different than the average type of pain. With chronic pain, the human body will continue sending pain signals to the brain, regardless if the injury has healed. Chronic pain can last for several weeks to even several years. Chronic pain can tremendously affect a patient’s mobility and it can reduce flexibility, strength, and endurance.

Neural Zoomer Plus for Neurological Disease

Dr. Alex Jimenez utilizes a series of tests to help evaluate neurological diseases. The Neural ZoomerTM Plus is an array of neurological autoantibodies which offers specific antibody-to-antigen recognition. The Vibrant Neural ZoomerTM Plus is designed to assess an individual’s reactivity to 48 neurological antigens with connections to a variety of neurologically related diseases. The Vibrant Neural ZoomerTM Plus aims to reduce neurological conditions by empowering patients and physicians with a vital resource for early risk detection and an enhanced focus on personalized primary prevention.

Food Sensitivity for the IgG & IgA Immune Response

Dr. Alex Jimenez utilizes a series of tests to help evaluate health issues associated with food sensitivities. The Food Sensitivity ZoomerTM is an array of 180 commonly consumed food antigens that offers very specific antibody-to-antigen recognition. This panel measures an individual’s IgG and IgA sensitivity to food antigens. Being able to test IgA antibodies provides additional information to foods that may be causing mucosal damage. Additionally, this test is ideal for patients who might be suffering from delayed reactions to certain foods. Utilizing an antibody-based food sensitivity test can help prioritize the necessary foods to eliminate and create a customized diet plan around the patient’s specific needs.

Gut Zoomer for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

Dr. Alex Jimenez utilizes a series of tests to help evaluate gut health associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The Vibrant Gut ZoomerTM offers a report that includes dietary recommendations and other natural supplementation like prebiotics, probiotics, and polyphenols. The gut microbiome is mainly found in the large intestine and it has more than 1000 species of bacteria that play a fundamental role in the human body, from shaping the immune system and affecting the metabolism of nutrients to strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier (gut-barrier). It is essential to understand how the number of bacteria that symbiotically live in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract influences gut health because imbalances in the gut microbiome may ultimately lead to gastrointestinal (GI) tract symptoms, skin conditions, autoimmune disorders, immune system imbalances, and multiple inflammatory disorders.

Formulas for Methylation Support

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Modern Integrated Medicine

The National University of Health Sciences is an institution that offers a variety of rewarding professions to attendees. Students can practice their passion for helping other people achieve overall health and wellness through the institution’s mission. The National University of Health Sciences prepares students to become leaders in the forefront of modern integrated medicine, including chiropractic care. Students have an opportunity to gain unparallel experience at the National University of Health Sciences to be able to help restore the natural integrity of the patient and define the future of modern integrated medicine.

Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C.,C.C.S.T

Welcome-Bienvenido's to our blog. We focus on treating severe spinal disabilities and injuries. We also treat Sciatica, Neck and Back Pain, Whiplash, Headaches, Knee Injuries, Sport Injuries, Dizziness, Poor Sleep, Arthritis. We use advanced proven therapies focused on optimal mobility, health, fitness, and structural conditioning. We use Individualized Diet Plans, Specialized Chiropractic Techniques, Mobility-Agility Training, Adapted Cross-Fit Protocols and the "PUSH System" to treat patients suffering from various injuries and health problems. If you would like to learn more about a Doctor of Chiropractic who uses advanced progressive techniques to facilitate complete physical health, please connect with me. We a focus on simplicity to help restore mobility and recovery. I'd love to see you. Connect!

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